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Name of a pool near the Sheepgate in Jerusalem where Jesus cured a man infirm for 38 years (Jn 5.29). Excavations have revealed the outlines of a large oblong pool in the location; this pool was provided with five porches (as in St. John's descriptionsee 5.2), four lateral and a fifth central to divide the pool into two parts. A Hebrew graffito found there proves that the building existed before the time of Hadrian (A.D. 118), and it has been concluded that the complex was the work of Herod the Great (374 b.c.). At the site may now be seen a reconstructed pool and the foundations of a 5th-century Byzantine church.

The reading and derivation of the name of the pool are disputed. Bethesda (Βηθεσδά) is usually derived from the Aramaic bêt esdā', "house of mercy." Many, however, prefer the MS reading Bethzatha [Βηθζαθά, from Aramaic bêt zētā ', "house of olives" (?)]. J. T. Milik, however, believes that both readings and their derivation can be explained with the aid of a topographical reference in the Copper Scroll (11.12) found among the dead sea scrolls. The reading byt šdtyn he understands to mean a rectangular double (note the dual ending) reservoir; Bethesda, then, would transliterate the singular form of the word, Bethzatha the emphatic plural.

It is to be noted that the reference to the angel who regularly "went down into [or, according to some MSS, "washed himself in"] the pool" to stir up the water is probably not part of the original Gospel text. Textual evidence suggests that these words were originally a marginal gloss containing the popular explanation of the movement of the water referred to in Jn 5.7 (probably caused by an intermittent underground stream) and the healing properties attributed to it, which was later incorporated into the text by a copyist.

Bibliography: Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible 231. l. heidet, Dictionnaire de la Bible 1.2:172332. c. kopp, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 10 v. (2d, new ed. Freiburg 195765) 2:332. l. h. vincent and f. m. abel, Jérusalem nouvelle, 2 v. in 4 (Paris 191226) 2:669684. j. jeremias, Die Wiederentdeckung von Bethesda, Johannes 5, 2 (Göttingen 1949). j. t. milik, Revue biblique 66 (1959) 347348.

[j. e. wrigley]

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Bethesda, uninc. city (1990 pop. 62,936), Montgomery co., W central Md., an affluent residential and commercial suburb of Washington, D.C. The area was settled in the late 17th cent. and takes its name from the 1820 Bethesda Presbyterian Church. The National Institutes of Health (1939), the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center are there, along with many private research facilities.

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Bethesda (bĕthĕz´də, –thĕs´–), pool in Jerusalem, perhaps the one discovered under the Crusaders' Church of St. Anne near St. Stephen's Gate in the northeast corner of the city. According to the Gospel of St. John, its healing properties, which made it the resort of the sick, were the result of an angel's visits.

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Bethesda in the bible (John 5:2–4), the name of a healing pool, perhaps representing Bethzatha, and understood to mean ‘house of grace’.