Identification. The British named the two islands after the naval officer Viscount Falkland.
Location and Geography. The Falklands, located approximately 185 miles (480 kilometers) east of Argentina, consist of two main islands, East Falkland and West Falkland, and over two hundred smaller islets. The combined area is 4,700 square miles (12,170 square kilometers). The terrain is mainly hilly to mountainous grassland. Shrubs abound, but there are no native trees. An impressive diversity of animal life includes elephant seals, sea lions, penguins, and other birds.
Demography. As of the year 2000, there was a population of 2,826 permanent residents, of whom 1,750 lived in the capital, Stanley. The majority are of British descent, although there are a few immigrants from South America, Chile in particular. At any given time, there are about two thousand British military personnel.
Linguistic Affiliation. English is both the official language and the language of daily life.
Symbolism. The coat of arms, which appears on the flag, contains a representation of the sailing ship Desire, which was the first to reach the islands, and a white ram symbolizing shepherding, the industry on which the economy was built.
History and Ethnic Relations
Emergence of the Nation. It is thought that Patagonian Indians may have reached the islands by canoe, but when the Europeans encountered the islands in the seventeenth century, they were uninhabited. The British landed in 1690 and claimed the islands. The first settlement was by the French, at Port Louis on East Falkland in 1764. Spain soon after pressured the French to leave, and in 1767, forced the British out of a settlement on West Falkland. Argentina claimed the islands in the late 1820s, and the British reclaimed them in 1833. In the late 1800s, sheep ranching brought some wealth, and the British declared the islands a colony in 1892. Although the Argentinian were forced out in 1833, they did not abandon their claim. In the late 1960s, Britain began to make moves to hand over the colony to Argentina. However, the process was slow, and in 1982, Argentina's government staged an invasion. Britain sent troops to retake the islands. The ensuing war took nearly one thousand lives (three-quarters of them Argentinian), and after seventy-two days, Argentina surrendered and its president resigned. Argentina's government holds to the conviction that it will retake the Falklands, although it declines to use military force to back up its claim.
National Identity. There is no indigenous culture; the population is entirely imported and mainly British. Despite historical ties to Argentina, most inhabitants align themselves with Britain. Since the war in 1972, they have been developing a relationship with Chile.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space
There is a low population density, with the majority of people living on farms and ranches in rural settings. Stanley is the only urban center. Its architecture is British in character.
Food and Economy
Food in Daily Life. Food is very similar to British cuisine in terms of ingredients and preparation. A common tradition, called the "smoko," is a midmorning tea or coffee break. Large "camp breakfasts" are popular, especially in rural areas. Seafood is an important part of the diet.
Basic Economy. The currency is the Falkland Island pound. There is no unemployment, but much of the work is seasonal, such as peat cutting and sheep shearing, and many islanders supplement their incomes with small-scale mechanical and agricultural projects.
Commercial Activities. The main goods produced are agricultural. In addition to sheep products (wool, hides, and meat), the islands grow vegetables such as potatoes, cabbages, and cauliflower.
Major Industries. Until recently, sheep shearing and wool processing was the major industry. This business was incorporated in the Falkland Islands Company in 1851, included in the British Royal Charter. The fishing industry has grown rapidly as a result of the government's declaration of the Falkland Islands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ). Between 1985 and 1987, gross national product tripled.
Trade. The primary products produced for export are wool, hides, and meat. The main imports are food, drink, building materials, and clothing. The major trading partners are the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Japan.
Government. The Falklands are governed as a colony of the United Kingdom. The highest political official is the governor, who is appointed to represent the British monarchy. Along with an Executive Council of six, the governor is responsible for administration. The Legislative Council is composed of two ex-officio and eight elected members. There is universal suffrage. There is a Supreme Court, the chief justice of which is a nonresident.
Leadership and Political Officials. There are not any political parties; all officials run as independents.
Military Activity. Roughly half the population consists of British personnel; two thousand troops are stationed at the Mount Pleasant airport complex.
Child Rearing and Education. Education is free and compulsory from age six through age fifteen. There is a primary school and a secondary school in Stanley, as well as three settlement schools on farms in rural areas. Students who do not attend these schools are home-schooled with the aid of traveling teachers and radio and telephone lessons.
Higher Education. There are not any institutes of higher learning, but citizens are eligible to receive funding for vocational and higher education classes in Great Britain.
Religious Beliefs. The vast majority of the population is Anglican.
Medicine and Health Care
The King Edward VII Hospital in Stanley is the only hospital. It was destroyed by a fire in 1984 and rebuilt in 1987. The care provided is free and comprehensive, with the exception of eyeglasses, dentures, and cosmetic dentistry.
Annual sports meetings take place in Stanley on 26 and 27 December; on West Falkland they are held in late February or early March. They include horse racing, bull riding, and sheepdog trials. Also observed are the Queen's Birthday (21 April), Liberation Day (14 June), Falklands Day (14 August), and the Battle of the Falklands Remembrance Day (8 December).
U.S. State Department, Central Intelligence Agency. Falkland Islands, 2000.
Destination Falkland Islands, 2000, www.lonelyplanet.com/dest/sam/fal
Falkland Islands Government on the World Wide Web, www.falklands.gov.fk.
|Official Country Name:||Falkland Islands (Malvinas)|
The Falkland Islands (also known as Malvinas) are a United Kingdoms Overseas Territory that the British have continuously controlled since 1833. Largely a ruralagricultural economy produced an urban-rural dichotomy in the provision of education. Isolated rural areas compared to the capital, Stanley, made it difficult to recruit and retain teachers. In addition, costs were high in making opportunities for rural pupils comparable with those in Stanley, especially in the transportation of travelling teachers, the maintenance of sufficient itinerant staff to ensure visits to pupils at educationally desirable intervals, and the subsidy of the hostel in the capital.
Historically, low expectations on the part of pupils and parents in the rural areas, and a continuous outflow of pastoral revenues, have contributed to this dichotomy. The provision of universal suffrage in 1948 prompted increases in public funding and private contributions. The Falkland Islands Government provides staff, equipment, and supplies throughout the islands. Education is free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 16. The school year in Stanley, which begins in mid-January, is divided into three terms. Elsewhere, it varies due to local requirements. The English language, English methods, and English examination systems are standard.
The primary school, Stanley/Junior School, caters to preschool youth to 10-year-olds. It was built in 1955 with modern additions made in 1990, 1996, and 2001. Each classroom has two multi-media computers and printers, and some are equipped with TV and video facilities. Additionally, there is a well-stocked library and spacious hall used for physical education, music, drama, and other activities.
In 1992 Stanley opened its secondary school, the Falkland Islands Community School, which caters to the 11- through 16-year-olds, as well as providing an educational and recreational resource for the whole community. It offers 16 subjects at the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level. In addition to general classrooms, there are two science laboratories, a music room, and rooms for art, information technology, business studies, design technology, home economics, and needle craft. Students receiving a grade of "C" or better are funded for A Level/GNVQ courses at Peter Symonds' Sixth Forum College or at alternate schools. There is funding, too, for vocational and higher education courses in Britain.
In the rural areas, known as Camp, younger children live in isolated settlements or on farms. Since the 1970s, parental attitudes have been favorable for more formal education. The majority of the children are taught by a combination of travelling teacher and radio/telephone lessons. A few are taught in the three settlement schools at Fox Bay, Port Howard, and North Arm. A team of six travelling teachers visit the more isolated pupils for two out of every six weeks; they work closely with the radio/telephone teachers provided by the Stanley based Camp Education Unit.
The changing parental attitudes of the older Camp children, between the ages of 10 and 16, have favored attendance at more distant schools. The children then live in a boarding hostel.
"Education: Information for Teaching Staff and Other Interested Persons." Falkland Islands Government, 2000. Available from http://www.falklands.gov.fk/education.htm.
Falkland Islands Government, Education Department. "Stanley Infant/Junior School," 2000. Available from http://www.falklands.gov.fk/ed1.htm.
Smith, David B. "Scale, Isolation and Dependency in the Educational System in the Educational System of the Falkland Islands." Educational Review 43 (1991): 335-342.
——. "Schooling in the Falkland Islands." Ph.D. diss., University of Hull, 1988.
—Bill T. Manikas
|Official Country Name:||Falkland Islands (Malvinas)|
|Region (Map name):||South America|
Press freedoms in the Falkland Islands equal those of Great Britain. There is no daily newspaper but the country boasts two weeklies, The Penguin News and theTeaberry Express. The Penguin News is published every Friday by Mercopress, and the Teaberry Express is published by Falkland Islands News Network. The staunchly pro-British Falkland Islands Newsletter is published in London by the non-profit Falkland Island Association and appears quarterly. The Web portal Falkland Island News Network, www.sartma.com, provides online access to a number of publications, including the Teaberry Express.
There are seven FM radio stations and one AM radio station for approximately 1,000 radios. There are two local television stations, both of which are run by the British Forces Broadcasting Service. There are approximately 1,000 televisions on the island. There are two Internet service providers.
The English made the first sighting, in 1592, and the first landing, in 1690, but the French established the first colony in 1764. This colony was turned over to the Spanish two years later, and the collection of islands has been subject to sporadic territorial dispute ever since, first between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. Tensions flared most recently in 1982 when Argentina invaded the Islands. The British beat them back and Queen Elizabeth II remains the chief of state. The head of the government is the Governor, who is appointed by the monarch to preside over a unicameral Legislative Council. The estimated population of the Falklands, which includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 smaller islands, is nearly 3,000. English is the official language. Sheep farming and wool exports are the traditional staples of the economy, but in the late 1980s, the government began to ramp up the sale of fishing licenses to subsidize social services.
Falkland Islands News Network home page. 2002. Available from www.sartma.com.
Falkland Islands Tourist Board. 2002. Available from www.tourism.org.fk.
Jenny B. Davis
Falkland Islands (fôk´lənd), Span. Islas Malvinas, group of islands (2012 pop. 2,563), 4,618 sq mi (11,961 sq km), S Atlantic, c.300 mi (480 km) E of the Strait of Magellan. The islands are a British overseas territory; the capital is Stanley. There are two large islands (East Falkland and West Falkland) and some 200 small ones. From 1908 to 1985 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands were dependencies of the colony. The Falklands are rather bleak, rocky moorlands, swept by wind and drenched by chill rain. The population is almost entirely British, Christian, and English-speaking.
The islands are flourishing sheep-raising centers, and the economy was long dependent on the export of wool and the sale of Falkland Islands postage stamps and coins. Since the late 1980s, however, the rich fishing grounds surrounding the islands have become the economic mainstay, as a result of the sale of licenses to foreign commercial fishing operations. Squid is the most important catch. Whales and seals also abound in the littoral waters and formerly were heavily hunted. Tourism also contributes to the economy. Oil exploration around the islands began in the early 1990s, but no commercially significant deposits were found until 2010. Fuel, food and drink, building materials, and clothing must be imported.
The Falklands are governed under the constitution of 2009. There is a unicameral Legislative Assembly with 8 elected and 2 nonvoting ex officio members, all of whom serve four-year terms. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by a governor, is the head of state.
The British have long claimed the islands, based on probable discovery by the navigator John Davis in 1592, but they were first settled in 1764 by France. Spain, Britain, and Argentina subsequently had colonies on the islands. When the seizure of an American sealing vessel in 1832 led to a U.S. punitive expedition, the British, claiming sovereignty, occupied the islands in 1832–33 and expelled the Argentinian colonists. Near the Falklands, in one of the most stirring naval engagements of World War I, the British under Sir Frederick Sturdee destroyed (Dec. 8, 1914) a German squadron under Graf von Spee.
Argentina invaded the islands in 1982 over a sovereignty dispute with Great Britain, but British forces responded quickly, forcing a surrender by the Argentines within six weeks. Since the invasion Falkland Islanders have opposed negotiations with Argentina concerning the islands' sovereignty. In Feb., 2010, the start of exploratory offshore oil drilling increased tensions with Argentina, which restricted ship traffic through its waters to the islands; in 2011, Falklands-flagged vessels were barred from the ports of Mercosur nations. In a 2013 referendum more than 90% of the eligible voters voted in favor of remaining British.