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Duisburg

Duisburg (düs´bŏŏrk), city (1994 pop. 536,800), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, at the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr rivers. Located in the Ruhr district, it is the largest inland port in the world and a center for iron and steel production. Other manufactures include shipbuilding, brewing, heavy machinery, textiles, chemicals, and metal and wood products. The city is home to one of the world's longest span truss bridges, the Duisburg-Neuenkamp Bridge, which stretches 1,148 feet (350 m) across the Rhine. Duisburg was a port in Roman times. It passed to the duchy of Cleves in 1290, and in 1614 was acquired, with Cleves, by Brandenburg. Its growth as an industrial center dates from c.1850. As a center of the German armaments industry, the city was heavily bombed during World War II. The Gothic Salvator Church is the burial place of the geographer and cartographer G. Mercator. Wilhelm Lehmbruck, the sculptor, was born in Duisburg, and his works are displayed there in a museum. The annexation in 1975 of four surrounding cities greatly enlarged Duisburg.

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Duisburg

Duisburg City at the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr rivers, Nordrhein-Westfalen, nw Germany. Chartered in 1129, it remained a free imperial city until the late 13th century. During World War II, it was the centre of the German armaments industry, and suffered extensive bomb damage. Industries: iron, steel, textiles, chemicals. Pop. (1999) 521,300.

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Duisburg

DuisburgBerg, burg, erg, exergue •Hamburg • Battenberg • Strasberg •Habsburg • Salzburg • Strasbourg •Pressburg • Spielberg • Tilburg •Lindbergh, Strindberg •Wittenberg • Vicksburg • Pittsburgh •Ginsberg • Johannesburg •Königsberg • Gettysburg • Freiburg •Heidelberg • Heisenberg • iceberg •Bromberg, homburg, Romberg •Gothenburg • Warburg • Jo'burg •Gutenberg • Duisburg • Magdeburg •Brandenburg • Hindenburg •Mecklenburg • Wallenberg •Orenburg • Nuremberg •Luxembourg • St Petersburg •Williamsburg • Schoenberg •Würzburg • Esbjerg

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Duisburg

DUISBURG

DUISBURG , city in Germany. A small Jewish settlement existed there from the second half of the 13th century whose members were massacred in the wake of the *Black Death (1350). No Jews lived there subsequently until the 18th century, when a few families are mentioned. A few Jewish students studied medicine at the university between 1708 and 1817. In 1793 there were ten families living in the town, who formed an organized community. A small synagogue was consecrated in 1826 and replaced by a more impressive edifice in 1875. The Jewish population increased during and after World War I as a result of immigration from Poland and Galicia. The community (united with Hamborn) numbered 2,560 in 1933. In October 1938, 144 Polish Jews were expelled. On Kristallnacht, the synagogue was set on fire; 40 Jewish homes and 25 stores were vandalized and 25 Jews were sent to Dachau. In December 1938 Jewish youngsters were sent to Holland on a Kindertransport; some later reached England, where they survived the war. The remaining 809 Jews were crowded into 11 Jewish houses from which they were deported in 1941 to ghettos in the East and later to death camps.

In 1969, 75 Jews lived in Duisburg and Muelheim an der Ruhr, which constituted one community. In 1989 the joint community of Duisburg, Muelheim, and Oberhausen had 118 members; due to the immigration of Jews from the Former Soviet Union, their number rose to 2,653 in 2003. The new synagogue, designed by Zvi Hecker and inaugurated in 1999, is an architectural hallmark of the city.

bibliography:

I.F. Baer, Protokollbuch der Landjudenschaft des Herzogtums Kleve (1922), 54–55; Kober, in: mgwj, 75 (1931), 118–27; Germ Jud (1934, repr. 1963), 90–91; 2 pt. 1 (1968), 178. add. bibliography: G. von Roden, Geschichte der Duisburger Juden (1986); F. Niessalla, K.-H. Keldungs, 1933–1945: Schicksale juedischer Juristen in Duisburg (1993); M. Komorowski, in: Juden im Ruhrgebiet (1999), 541–54.

[Zvi Avneri /

Michael Birenbaum and

Stefan Rohrbacher (2nd ed.)]

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