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Chatsworth House (Derbys). Country seat of the Cavendishes, dukes of Devonshire. The Elizabethan house, begun by Sir William Cavendish in 1552 and completed by his widow Bess of Hardwick ( Lady Shrewsbury) was replaced by the present building which has south and east fronts by William Talman (1687–96) and a north front by Thomas Archer (1704–7). Later architects at Chatsworth include James Paine, John Carr, and Sir Jeffry Wyatville, whose alterations and additions between 1820 and 1841 encompassed the library, the north wing and tower, and estate buildings. Chatsworth has painted ceilings by Verrio, Thornhill, and Laguerre, furniture by William Kent, sculpture by Cibber and Canova, and paintings by Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Van Dyck, Tintoretto, and Lely. Of more recent date, there are sculptures by Angela Conner and paintings by Landseer, Sargent, and Lucien Freud. Among the contents of the library are major collections of drawings by Palladio and Rubens. The formal parterres at Chatsworth were designed by George London and Henry Wise, whilst the cascade by Grillet, a pupil of Le Nôtre, has a classical temple at its top by Thomas Archer (1702). From 1761 Capability Brown made major changes in the grounds, incorporating new planting and a bridge by Paine (1760–4), and alterations to the course of the river Derwent. During the 19th cent. the 6th duke of Devonshire and his gardener Sir Joseph Paxton devised a system of cascades, fountains, and pools, culminating in the Emperor Fountain of 1843. They planted rare trees and specimen shrubs, and introduced rocks, buildings, and statuary to punctuate the landscape. The site of the conservatory (1836–40) by Paxton and Decimus Burton—which anticipated Paxton's design for the Crystal Palace—is now covered by a maze.