Katanga (kätăng´gə, kə–), formerly Shaba (shä´bä), province (1984 pop. 3,874,019), c.200,000 sq mi (518,000 sq km), SE Congo (Kinshasa). Katanga borders Angola on the southwest, Zambia on the southeast, and Lake Tanganyika on the east. The capital and chief city is Lubumbashi. The province encompasses the fertile Katanga Plateau (3,000–6,000 ft/914–1,829 m high), where farming and ranching are carried on. In the eastern part of the province is an enormously rich mining region, which supplies much of the world's cobalt as well as extensive quantities of copper, tin, radium, uranium, and diamonds. The province's considerable industrial plant is largely concerned with the processing of minerals. Katanga is well connected by rail with the rest of Congo and with Angola and Zambia. There is also steamer service on Lake Tanganyika between Kalemie, in Katanga, and Kigoma, Tanzania.
Copper has been mined and exported by the region's inhabitants for centuries. From the 17th to the 19th cent. much of the province was controlled by the Luba and Lunda kingdoms. In the late 19th cent. M'Siri, a Nyamwezi trader from what is now central Tanzania, founded a kingdom in the area that lasted until he was killed by the Belgians in 1891. Under Belgian rule (1884–1960), mineral resources were exploited by Belgian firms and the province was developed much more rapidly than the rest of the country.
In July, 1960, after the Congo became independent, Katanga proclaimed itself a republic and seceded from the central government. Under the leadership of its president, Moise Tshombe, and with Belgian aid, Katanga fought off repeated attempts by the central government to seize control. Disorder was widespread, and the central government invoked the help of the United Nations. In 1960, President Tshombe reluctantly allowed a small UN force to enter Katanga. Later a considerable number of UN troops, committed to a policy of nonintervention, were stationed in Katanga to oversee the withdrawal of foreign troops. The Belgian troops were slowly withdrawn, but white mercenary officers continued to command in the army of Katanga. There was recurrent trouble between the UN force and the Katangese, and attempts at reconciliation with the central government proved fruitless.
The situation grew steadily more volatile until early 1961, when the former premier Patrice Lumumba was murdered in Katanga. Under a new, stronger UN mandate the international force took control (1961) of Elisabethville (now Lubumbashi) and other strongpoints. An agreement (Dec., 1961) for reintegrating Katanga into the country proved abortive. In Jan., 1963, UN troops routed Tshombe's forces and ended the Katanga secession.
In 1966 the central government nationalized Union Minière du Haut Katanga, the Belgian firm that had controlled most of Katanga's mining interests. It was renamed Gécamines. In 1971 Katanga was renamed Shaba; the original name was restored in 1997. In the 1970s further insurrections were put down by the government with help from foreign nations, and in the 1990s there was again talk of secession. During the civil war that began in 1998, Katanga was divided between government and rebel control. Despite the 2002 peace treaty ending the civil war, Katanga has experienced factional fighting that has displaced thousands. Gécamines has had difficulty in maintaining its operations and exporting its copper.
"Katanga." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/katanga
"Katanga." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/katanga
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
"Katanga." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/katanga
"Katanga." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/katanga