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Annaba

ANNABA

Algerian seaport situated near the Tunisian border.

Called Bona (or Bône) before the independence of Algeria (1962), Annaba was one of North Africa's major trading posts prior to the French invasion in 1830. Bona itself, where France had obtained certain trading privileges prior to the invasion, was occupied in 1832. The city remained an important trading port throughout the nineteenth century. It was singled out by the French government in the 1950s for a number of major industrial projects, including Algeria's most important steel plant. These were part of the final effort by Francethe so-called Constantine plan of 1958to tie Algeria's postindependence economic development to the métropole (France itself).

After independence, Annaba emerged as an important harbor and industrial center. This was based in part on the earlier steel industry that had been started by the French and on heavy industries related to Algeria's socialist strategy adopted shortly after independence. Annaba's population is about 620,000 (2002).


Bibliography


Ruedy, John. Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1992.

Dirk Vandewalle

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Annaba

Annaba (ăn-näb´ə), formerly Bône (bōn), city (1998 pop. 348,554), capital of Annaba prov., extreme NE Algeria, a port on the Mediterranean Sea. One of the country's leading ports, the city is also an important administrative, commercial, and industrial center. The large El Hadjar steelworks, built with French and Soviet financial and technical aid, constitutes the chief industry; others include chemical (superphosphate) manufacturing, food canning, cork production, and railway construction. Founded by the Phoenicians, the city became a favorite residence of the Numidian kings. Under the Romans, it was called Hippo Regius and was a center of early Christianity, the episcopal see of St. Augustine. The city was captured by the Vandals in 431. After the Arab conquest of Algeria in the 7th cent., Annaba became an important Muslim city and port. Spanish forces occupied it in the 16th cent. During the 17th and 18th cent., Annaba was a busy center for European trade. The French took the city in 1832. Landmarks include the Great Mosque and the Cathedral of St. Augustine.

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Annaba

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