Vertov, Dziga

views updated May 08 2018


Nationality: Russian. Born: Denis Arkadievitch Kaufman in Byalistok, Poland (then annexed to Russia), 2 January 1896. Education: Studied at the music academy in Byalistok, Poland, 1912–15; also attended medical school in St. Petersburg/Petrograd, 1916–17. Family: Married Elizoveta Svilova. Career: Set up a lab for the study of sound while a student, 1915–17; adopted pseudonym "Dziga Vertov" (translates as "spinning top"), and became editor and writer for newsreel section of Moscow Cinema Committee, 1917; directed first personal film and published Kinoks-Revolution Manifesto, 1919; organized film activities on government agit-steamboats and agittrains, 1921; began developing theory of "Kino-Glaz" (Kino-Eye), 1922; worked on Kino-Pravda and Goskinokalender newsreel series, 1922–25; directed newsreel series Novostidnia, from 1947. Died: 1954.

Films as Director:


Kino-Nedelia (Weekly Reels) series, no. 1–43 (co-d; according to Sadoul, he did not take part in the production of nos. 38–42)


Godovshchina revoliutsiya (Anniversary of the Revolution) (+ ed); Protsess Mironova (The Trial of Mironov); Vskrytiemoschei Sergeia Radonezhskogo (Exhumation of the Remainsof Sergius of Radonezh)


Boi pod Tsaritsinom ( Battle for Tsaritsin) (+ ed); Vserusskistarets Kalinin (All Russian Elder Kalinin); InstruktoriiParokhod "Krasnaia Zvezda" (Instructional Steamer "RedStar')


Agitpoezd VTsIK ( The VTIK Train; Agit-Train of the CentralCommittee)


Istoriia grazhdenskoi voini ( History of the Civil War) (+ ed); Protsess Eserov (Trial of the Social Revolutionaries); Univermag (Department Store)


Kino-Pravda (Cinema-Truth; Film-Truth) series, nos. 1–23


Goskinokalender series, nos. 1–53; Sevodiva (Today)


Sovetskie igrushki ( Soviet Toys); Iumoreski (Humoresques); Daesh vozkukh (Give Us Air); Khronika-molniya (News-reel-Lightning); Kino-glaz (Kino-Eye)


Zagranichnii pokhod sudov Baltiiskogo flota kreisere "Aurora" i uchebnogo sudna "Komsomolts," August 8, 1925 (The Seventh Anniversary of the Red Army)


Shagai, Soviet! (Stride, Soviet!); Shestaya chast' mira (A Sixthof the World)


Odinnadtsatii (The Eleventh Year)


Chelovek s kinoapparatom (The Man with a Movie Camera)


Entuziazm: Simfoniia Donbassa (Enthusiasm: Symphony ofthe Don Basin)


Tri pensi o Lenine (Three Songs of Lenin)


Kolibel 'naya (Lullaby) (+ narration); Pamyati SergoOrdzhonikidze (In Memory of Sergo Ordzhonikidze); SergoOrdzhonikidze (co-d)


Slava Sovetskim Geroiniam (Famous Soviet Heroes); Trigeroini (Three Heroines) (+ co-sc)


Krov'za krov', smert'za smert': slodeianiya Nemetsko-Fashistkih zakhvatchikov na territorii C.C.C.P. me nezabudem (Blood for Blood, Death for Death); Soiuzkinozhurnal No. 77; Soiuzkinozhurnal No. 87


Tebe, Front: Kazakhstan Front (For You at the Front: TheKazakhstan Front)


V gorakh Ala-Tau (In the Mountains of Ala-Tau); Kliatvamolodikh (Youth's Oath; The Oath of Youth)


Novosti dnia series (contributed various issues through 1954)


By VERTOV: books—

Statii, dnevniki, zamysly, edited by S. Drobashenko, Moscow, 1966.

Dsiga Wertow: aus den Tagebüchern, edited by Peter Konlechner and Peter Kubelka, Vienna, 1967.

Articles, Journaux, Projets, edited and translated by Sylviane and Andrée Robel, Paris, 1972.

Kino-Eye: The Writings of Dziga Vertov, edited by Annette Michelson, Berkeley, 1984.

By VERTOV: articles—

"Iz rabochikh tetradei Dziga Vertov," in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 4, 1957.

"Vespominaiia o s'emkakh V.I. Lenin," in Iz Istorii Kino (Moscow), no. 2, 1959.

"Manuscrit sans titre," translated by J. Aumont, in Cahiers duCinéma (Paris), May/June 1970.

"Doklad na pervoi vsesoyuznoi . . . ," in Iz Istorii Kino (Moscow), no. 8, 1971.

Various articles in Film Comment (New York), Spring 1972.

"From the Notebooks of Dziga Vertov," translated by Marco Carynnyk, in Artforum (New York), March 1972.

"Dak rodilsja i rasvivalsfa Kinoglaz," in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), February 1986.

On VERTOV: books—

Bryher, Winnifred, Film Problems of Soviet Russia, Terrutent, Switzerland, 1929.

Lozowick, Louis, Joseph Freeman, and Joshua Kunitz, Voices ofOctober: Art and Literature in Soviet Russia, New York, 1930.

Marshall, Herbert, Soviet Cinema, London, 1945.

Dickinson, Thorold, and Catherine De La Roche, Soviet Cinema, London, 1948.

Eisenstein, Sergei, Film Form, edited and translated by Jay Leyda, New York, 1949.

Pudovkin, V.I., G. Alexandrov, and I. Piryev, Soviet Films: PrincipleStages of Development, Bombay, India, 1951.

Babitsky, Paul, and John Rimberg, The Soviet Film Industry, New York, 1955.

Abramov, N.P., Dziga Vertov, Moscow, 1962; Lyons, 1965.

Borokov, V., Dziga Vertov, Moscow, 1967.

Geduld, Harry, editor, Film Makers on Filmmaking, Bloomington, Indiana, 1967.

Issari, M. Ali, Cinéma Vérité, East Lansing, Michigan, 1971.

Sadoul, Georges, Dziga Vertov, Paris, 1971.

Barnouw, Erik, Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film, New York, 1974.

Kuleshov, Lev, Kuleshov on Film, translated and edited by Ronald Levaco, Berkeley, California, 1974.

Feldman, Seth, Evolution of Style in the Early Work of Dziga Vertov, New York, 1977.

Feldman, Seth R., Dziga Vertov: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1979.

Marshall, Herbert, Masters of the Soviet Cinema: Crippled CreativeBiographies, London, 1983.

Waugh, Thomas, editor, "Show Us Life": Toward a History andAesthetics of the Committed Documentary, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1984.

Petric, Vlad, Constructivism in Film: The Man with the MovieCamera: A Cinematic Analysis, Cambridge, 1987.

On VERTOV: articles—

Lenauer, Jean, "Vertov, His Work, and His Future," in Close-Up (London), December 1929.

Hughes, Pennethorne, "Vertov ad Absurdum," in Close-Up (London), September 1932.

Koster, Simon, "Dziga Vertov," in Experimental Cinema (New York), no. 5, 1934.

Vaughan, Dai, "The Man with the Movie Camera," in Films andFilming (London), November 1960.

Sadoul, Georges, "Actualité de Dziga Vertov," in Cahiers du

Cinéma (Paris), June 1963.

Weinberg, Herman G., "The Man with the Movie Camera," in FilmComment (New York), Fall 1966.

Abramov, Nikolai, "Dziga Vertov, Poet and Writer of the Cinema," in Soviet Film (Moscow), no. 11, 1968.

Rotha, Paul, and Richard Griffith, in Documentary Film, New York, 1968.

Giercke, Christopher, "Dziga Vertov," in Afterimage (Rochester), April 1970.

Brik, Osip, "The So-called 'Formal Method,"' translated by Richard Sherwood, in Screen (London), Winter 1971/72.

Bordwell, David, "Dziga Vertov: An Introduction," in Film Comment (New York), Spring 1972.

Michelson, Annette, "The Man with the Movie Camera: From Magician to Entomologist," in Artforum (New York), March 1972.

Enzensberger, Marsha, "Dziga Vertov," in Screen (London), Winter 1972/73.

Feldman, Seth, "Cinema Weekly and Cinema Truth: Dziga Vertov and the Leninist Proportion," in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1973/74.

Brik, Osip, "Mayakovsky and the Literary Movements of 1917–30," translated by Diana Matias, in Screen (London), Autumn 1974.

Mayne, J., "Kino-truth and Kino-praxis: Vertov's Man with a MovieCamera," in Ciné-Tracts (Montreal), Summer 1977.

Denkin, H., "Linguistic Models in Early Soviet Cinema," in CinemaJournal (Evanston), Fall 1977.

Fischer, L., "Enthusiasm: from Kino-eye to Radio-eye," in FilmQuarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1977/78.

"Dziga Vertov," in Travelling (Lausanne), Summer 1979.

Rouch, Jean, "Five Faces of Vertov," in Framework (Norwich, England), Autumn 1979.

"Vertov Issue" of October (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Winter 1979.

Petric, Vlad, "The Difficult Years of Dziga Vertov: Excerpts from His Diaries," in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (New York), Winter 1982.

Tesson, C., "L'homme sans limites," in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1987.

* * *

Dziga Vertov, pioneer Soviet documentarian, was born Denis Arkadievitch Kaufman. He and two younger brothers, Mikhail and Boris, were sons of a librarian in the Polish city of Byalistok, which at the time was within the Tsarist empire. When World War I broke out, the parents took the family to what seemed the comparative safety of Petrograd (St. Petersburg was renamed to expunge the Germanic link). When the Bolshevik revolution began, Denis, who was twenty-one, and Mikhail, who was nineteen, became involved. Denis volunteered to the cinema committee and became a newsreel worker. Soon he was editing footage of revolutionary upheaval and the struggles against American, British, French, and Japanese intervention forces. His hastily assembled reels went out as war reports and morale boosters. He became known as Dziga Vertov, a name that suggested a spinning top and a choice that was perhaps meant to convey perpetual motion. The newsreel, titled Kino-Nedelia (Film Weekly), continued until the end of the hostilities in 1920. Vertov also used selected footage for the multi-reel Godovshchina revoliutsiva (Anniversary of the Civil War) and other compilations.

Vertov hoped to launch a more ambitious series of film reports on the building of a new society, but a period of frustration followed. A new economic policy, introduced as a temporary measure, permitted limited private enterprise to stimulate the prostrate economy. Cinemas, which were allowed to import foreign features, were soon filled with old American, German, French, and English films. An outraged Vertov turned into a polemicist, a writer of fiery manifestos. Addressing the film world, he wrote: "'Art' works of pre-revolutionary days surround you like icons and still command your prayerful emotions. Foreign lands abet you in your confusion, sending into the new Russia the living corpses of movie dramas garbed in splendid technological dressing." He tended to look on these films, and even on fiction films in general, as dangerous corrupting influences, another "opium of the people." He urged producers to "come to life."

His vitriol won Vertov enemies in the film world, but he also had support in high places. Early in 1922 Lenin is said to have told his Commissar of Education, Anatoli Lunacharsky, "Of all the arts, for us film is the most important." Lenin emphasized newsreels and proclaimed a "Leninist film-proportion": along with fiction, film programs should include material reflecting "Soviet reality." All this enabled Vertov to launch, in May 1922, the famous Kino-Pravda (Film-Truth), which continued as an official monthly release until 1925. His wife, Elizoveta Svilova, became film editor. Mikhail Kaufman gave up a planned law career to become his brother's chief cameraman.

The Kino-Pravda group scorned prepared scenarios. Vertov outlined ideas, but left wide latitude to Mikhail and other cameramen. Sallying forth with cameras, they caught moments when a Moscow trolley line, long defunct in torn-up streets, was finally put back into action. Army tanks, used as tractors, were seen leveling an area for an airport. They shot footage of the staff of a children's hospital as it tried to save war-starved waifs. A travelling film team was seen arriving in a town, unpacking gear, and preparing an outdoor showing—of Kino-Pravda. The reels were always composed of "fragments of actuality," but Vertov also put emphasis on their provocative juxtaposition. Superimpositions, split screens, slowed or speeded motion could play a part in this. If the fragments were "truths," the manipulations were intended to bring out other "truths"—relationships and meanings.

For a time the Kino-Pravda releases were virtually the only item in cinema programs that touched the historic movement, and they therefore had a wide impact. Footage was from time to time reused in combination with new footage in feature documentaries. Among the most successful was Shestaya chast' mira (One Sixth of the World), in which Vertov made impressive use of subtitles. Short, intermittent subtitles formed a continuing apostrophe addressing the people of the Soviet Union. "You in the small villages . . . You in the tundra . . . You on the ocean." Having established, via footage and words, a vast geographic dispersion, the catalog turned to nationalities, "You Uzbeks . . . You Kalmiks." Then it addressed occupations, age groups, sexes. The continuing sentence went on for minutes, then ended with, "You are the owners of one sixth of the world." The incantation style, reminiscent of Walt Whitman—who was much admired by Vertov—continued throughout the film, projecting the destiny foreseen for the "owners." To men and women with only a dim awareness of the scope and resources of their land, the film must indeed have been a prideful pageant.

Vertov's career gradually became clouded, especially in the Stalin years. His aversion to detailed scenarios, which he said were inapplicable to reportage documentaries, marked him as "antiplanning." He agreed to write "analyses" of what he had in mind, but his proposals were often rejected. Articulated social doctrine was increasingly mandatory; experiments in form were decried. Ironically, Vertov remains best known for one of his most experimental films, Chelovek s kinoapparatom (Man with a Movie Camera). Featuring Mikhail in action, and intended to demonstrate the role of the cameraman in showing "Soviet reality," it also became an anthology of film devices and tricks. Eisenstein, usually a Vertov supporter, criticized it for "unmotivated camera mischief" and even "formalism."

During the following years Vertov and Kaufman worked in the Ukraine studios, apparently a reflection of disfavor in Moscow. But in the Ukraine Vertov created one of the most inventive of early sound films, Entuziazm: Simfoniia Donbassa (Enthusiasm: Symphony of the Don Basin), a virtuoso exploration of the possibilities of nonsynchronous sound. Another such exploration was the moving Tri pesni O Lenine (Three Songs about Lenin), which utilized the precious fragments of Lenin footage. But Vertov had lost standing. In his final years he was again a newsreel worker, arriving and leaving the job on schedule, no longer writing manifestos.

Vertov's ideas were, however, echoed in later years in cinéma vérité, the movement of the 1960s named after Vertov's Kino-Pravda. The 1960s and 1970s saw an international revival of interest in Vertov. This revival included rehabilitation of his reputation in the Soviet Union, with retrospectives of his films, biographical works, and publication of selections from Vertov's journals, manifestos, and other writings.

—Erik Barnouw

Vertov, Dziga

views updated May 29 2018

Dziga Vertov

The foremost avant-garde figure of Soviet Russian cinema in its early days, Dziga Vertov (1896–1954) attempted to create a purely cinematic language, untouched by the narrative principles of literature or theater.

Vertov's best-known film, a staple of film curricula and an inspiration to experiment-minded young filmmakers of subsequent generations in the West, was The Man with a Movie Camera, a sort of silent ballet of everyday life and work as it is captured by the roving camera of the film's title. Vertov made other innovative films, however, and he held an important place among the large group of creative Russian intellectuals that turned out several of the most important landmarks of silent cinema. That he is not better known is due in part to the course of political history; a supporter of Communism, Vertov guessed wrong in opposing the liberalization of Soviet culture in the mid-1920s, and his creativity was eventually suppressed by the Soviet Communist government.

Family Fled Poland

Vertov was born Denis Abramovich Kaufman in Bialystok, Poland, on January 2, 1896. His family was Jewish, and his father owned a bookstore. Vertov was interested in the arts from an early age, writing poetry and playing the violin and piano. His family fled Poland, which at the time was controlled by czarist Russia, in order to escape advancing German troops during World War I. They settled in St. Petersburg, and Vertov changed his middle name to the more Russian-sounding Arkadievich. He took the name Dziga Vertov after he became active in cinema; the name evokes the turning of a movie camera's crank handle (Vertov is derived from the Russian word for "spin," and Dziga is an onomatopoetic representation of the grinding of a piece of machinery).

Enrolling at the Psychoneurological Institute in St. Petersburg, Vertov studied human perception of sound and soon created a makeshift "laboratory of hearing" where he could experiment with sound effects. He was influenced by the Italian Futurists, a group of artists and composers, who strove to create an anti-expressive, mechanistic aesthetic. When the Russian Revolution broke out in 1917 and brought the Communists to power, Vertov and his brother Mikhail took to the streets in support of the Bolsheviks. Both of Vertov's brothers became active in cinema as well; Boris Kaufman served as a cameraman for French director Jean Vigo in the 1930s, and Mikhail Kaufman made some films in Russia that have mostly disappeared from view.

Volunteering for the new Bolshevik government's cinema committee in Moscow, Vertov was put to work on newsreels. He became writer and editor of Kinonedelia (Film Week), the first Soviet newsreel agency. Vertov captured the chaotic world of the Soviet Union's first years, as foreign troops aided anti-Communist rebels but were eventually vanquished. Several young filmmakers working in the Soviet Union around this time went on to make cinematic history; Vertov met the experimental director and film editor Lev Kuleshov and camera operator Edouard Tissé, who later worked with Sergei Eisenstein. Revolutionary rhetoric was in the air, and Vertov and his friends began to churn out articles and pamphlets announcing their new artistic aims. In 1919 he made his first feature-length film, Anniversary of the Revolution, which was a compilation of earlier newsreels.

Vertov met film archivist Elisaveta Svilova while working on newsreels, and the two married. They founded a new group of filmmakers called kino-oki (Cinema Eyes) or Kinoks, devoted to documentary-style filmmaking. "I am kino-eye; I am mechanical eye; I, a machine, show you the world as only I can see it," Vertov wrote in a manifesto quoted on the Images website. "My path leads to the creation of a fresh perception of the world. I decipher in a new way a world unknown to you." In the early 1920s Vertov, under the auspices of the state Goskino cinema agency, launched a new newsreel series called Kino-Pravda or Cinema of Truth. The name reflected the influence of the party-line Soviet newspaper Pravda, but Vertov's path soon made a left turn away from sheer realism.

Experimented with Newsreel Format

On one hand, the Kino-Pravda films fit the requirements of Communist propaganda. They showed Soviet citizens at work, reported on the completion of civil engineering projects, and presented footage of hospitals and streetcars. But Vertov assembled his crews' footage innovatively and artistically, using such techniques as a split screen, superimposed images, and slow or speeded-up motion, in an attempt to create compositions that would reflect what he called Soviet reality or Life as It Is. "We leave the film studio for … that whirlpool of colliding visible phenomena, where everything is real, where people, tramways, motorcycles, and trains meet and part, where each bus follows its route, where cars scurry about their business, where smiles, tears, deaths, and taxes do not obey the director's megaphone," Vertov wrote, as quoted in the New Republic. His film Kino-Eye: Life Caught Unawares won a silver medal at the 1924 World Exhibition in Paris.

A good example of Vertov's work of this period was One Sixth of the World, released in 1926. Writings and films glorifying the Soviet Union's ethnic diversity were a staple of the country's culture for its entire existence, and Vertov's film fell under that classification. But his method was unique. The dialogue of the entire film (on title cards, for this was still during the silent film era) consisted of a series of short geographic calls: "You in the small villages … You in the tundra … You on the ocean … You Uzbeks … You Kalmiks." These were blended with film imagery and rhythmic sounds to create a sort of visual poem of the Soviet Union. The International Dictionary of Films and Film-makers noted that the technique results in a mood similar to that of Walt Whitman's poetry, which Vertov knew and liked. The Kino-Pravda films, and their successors, the 55 episodes of Goskino Kalendar, were closer in general to modern music videos than to the usual run of silent films.

Vertov and his associates continued to buttress their aesthetic experiments with vigorous written justifications of their works. Clearly Vertov benefited from the relatively free atmosphere of the Soviet Union in the mid-1920s, prior to Josef Stalin's ascent to power. Imports of Western films were permitted at this time, and they became popular. But Vertov, anxious to claim the mantle of Communist legitimacy for his experiments, condemned them. "We declare the old films, the romantic, the theatricalised, etc., to be leprous," he wrote, as quoted in a Vertov biography on the University of Glasgow, Scotland, website. "Don't come near! Don't look! Mortally dangerous! Contagious!" According to the Senses of Cinema website, he declared, "The film drama is the Opium of the people … down with Bourgeois fairy-tale scenarios … long live life as it is!"

Vertov's polemics paid off in government support for several more of his unique films, including Stride, Soviet! (1926). But he was playing a dangerous game, for his own work was as artistic and individualistic as that which he fulminated against. In the late 1920s, as the Soviet Union spun toward totalitarian rule, he began to fall out of favor in official circles. In order to make his masterpiece, The Man with a Movie Camera, he was forced to leave the Goskino studio and the city of Moscow itself, accepting support from the VUFKU studio in Ukraine, then under Soviet rule but temporarily still somewhat independent-minded.

In corporated Cameraman into Film

The Man with a Movie Camera (1929) summed up everything Vertov had done thus far, in a large-scale, abstract, self-referential composition. It had no dialogue, and was set in a nameless city that conflated images of Moscow, Kiev, and Odessa. The film, according to New Republic writer J. Hoberman, "matches the rhythms of the workday to the cycle of life, and the mechanisms of moviemaking to the processes of industrial production." The film showed Soviet citizens at work and en route to their places of employment. But it added several new elements. Vertov used a full range of cinematic techniques, including special effects and variable-speed filming, to try and demonstrate that cinema could stand on its own as a completely new art form. And he incorporated the camera itself as a participant in his cinematic composition: the camera, operated by Vertov's brother Mikhail, is seen in action as it moves around the city and is superimposed on other images in a dazzling sequence near the film's conclusion.

The Man with a Movie Camera was one of a group of films known to cinema buffs as city symphonies. It remained part of numerous film school curricula three-quarters of a century later, and was performed with a live improvised score by the Alloy Orchestra, a group of experimental silent film accompanists. But at the time of its creation it was condemned in the Soviet Union. Sergei Eisenstein, as quoted on the Silents Are Golden website, said that it was filled with "formalist jackstraws and unmotivated camera mischief."

Vertov was able to make just one more film that reflected his experimental outlook: Enthusiasm: Donbass Symphony (1931), his first sound film, used sound as an abstract element, not always synchronized with the action on screen. The film brought Vertov recognition abroad and was hailed as a masterwork by Charlie Chaplin, among others. But Vertov's situation at home deteriorated still further. In 1934 he wrote (according to Hoberman) that he felt "anxiety day and night. I used to think I'd always be tireless. Not so. They've exhausted me. My brain's so tired that a breeze knocks me over." According to Hoberman, Vertov wrote a little satirical sketch of his cultural overlords: "You wish to continue working on the ponetic documentary?," he imagined them saying. "Go right ahead. You have our general permission…. You can sit in your damp hole beneath the water tank and above the sobering station for drunks. You can stand in line for the toilet, for the kitchen burner, the sink, the streetcar, and the bath. With no elevator, you can climb up to the sixth floor ten times a day."

The disillusioned Vertov attempted to regain the Party's good graces with Three Songs of Lenin (1934), a tribute to the Soviet Union's founder, but even this did not help his position. The film's release was delayed, perhaps because it did not include any appropriate homage to Stalin. Despite his declining status, Vertov did not end up in a prison camp like so many of his progressive contemporaries. He returned to making propaganda documentaries like For You at the Front: the Kazakhstan Front (1942) for the Soviet state, and he survived Stalinist purges and the horrors of the Second World War. Beginning in 1944 he came full circle and worked on Soviet newsreels. He died of cancer on February 12, 1954, in Moscow.


International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, vol. 2: Directors, 4th ed., St. James, 2000.


New Republic, December 9, 1985.

Variety, March 15, 2004.


"Dziga Vertov," Senses of Cinema, (February 1, 2006).

"Man with a Movie Camera," Images, (February 1, 2006).

"Man with a Movie Camera," Silents Are Golden, (February 1, 2006).

"No Fiction Films Allowed," University of Glasgow, (February 1, 2006).

Vertov, Dziga

views updated May 29 2018


VERTOV, DZIGA (originally Denis Kaufman ; 1897–1954), Russian pioneer in newsreel-documentary movie director and founder of the "cine-eye, cine-ear" theory. He edited (early 1920s) the newsreel kino-pravda from film taken by cameramen he dispatched throughout the U.S.S.R. After 1924 Vertov headed his own group of movie theorists and filmmakers; his brother and chief cameramen mikhail kaufman went with him. Among his documentaries are One Sixth of the World (1927), Three Songs of Lenin (1932), and Lullaby (1937).