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Scheibler, Johann Heinrich

Scheibler, Johann Heinrich, German inventor and writer on music; b. Montjoie, near Aachen, Nov. 11, 1777; d. Krefeld, Nov. 20, 1837. He studied with J.N. Wolff. A silk manufacturer at Krefeld, he became interested in acoustic phenomena and invented an apparatus, consisting of 56 tuning forks, for tuning fixed-tone instruments according to the equally tempered scale. At the Stuttgart Congress of physicists in 1834, Scheibler proposed the pitch of a1 = 440 (vibrations) at 69 F, which was adopted (hence called the “Stuttgart pitch”). His system is more clearly explained by Töpfer (1842), Vincent (1849), and Lecomte (1856).

Writings

Der physikalische und musikalische Tonmesser (Essen, 1834); Anleitung, die Orgel vermittelst der Stösse (vulgo Schwebungen) und des Metronoms correct gleischschwebend zu stimmen (Krefeld, 1834); Über mathematische Stimmung, Temperaturen und Orgelbaustimmung nach Vibrationsdifferenzen oder Stos-sen (Krefeld, 1835); Mitteilung über das Wesentliche des musikalischen und physikalischen Tonmessers (Krefeld, 1836).

Bibliography

J. Löhr, Über die S.’sche Erfindung überhaupt und dessen Pianoforte- und Orgel-Stimmung insbesondere (Krefeld, 1836).

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire

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Scheibler, Johann Heinrich (b Montjoie, nr. Aix-la-Chapelle, 1777; d Crefeld, 1837). Ger. silk manufacturer with interest in acoustics. Experimented in measurement of pitch and in 1834 at Stuttgart proposed 440 vibrations for A at 69° F, adopted as ‘Stuttgart pitch’. Invented ‘Aura’, first mouth harmonica, 1816. Writings on subject pubd. 1838.