Hans Memling (ca. 1440-1494), a German-born painter active in Flanders, was one of the most graceful, charming, and technically brilliant of the early Netherlandish masters.
Hans Memling was born in Seligenstadt, a hamlet near Frankfurt. His early training probably took place in Cologne, though by 1465 "Jan van Memmelynghe" was recorded as a citizen of Bruges in the Lowlands. It is conjectured that, previous to entering the painters' guild at Bruges, Memling spent time as an apprentice in the workshop of Rogier van der Weyden in Brussels. The evidence for this association, however, is far from conclusive and does not prove a master-pupil relationship. Nothing further is known concerning the artist's early professional training.
From the first Memling displayed the highest standards of technical proficiency and pictorial sophistication in his work. The full corpus of his paintings, in fact, represents a single standard of perfection in which one can discover little stylistic change or development. His earliest known painting, for example, the Chatsworth Triptych, commissioned by the English lord Sir John Donne of Kidwelly in 1468, displays a surprising maturity of style. Blending a figure style derived from Rogier van der Weyden with compositional motifs and other details from Jan van Eyck, Memling created the prototype of the rational and balanced design upon which he so often relied throughout his long and active career.
Memling's search for rational order and compositional equilibrium, however, often obscures his truly progressive outlook and the many innovations found in his work. In such early paintings as the Scenes of the Passion he combined a bold, panoramic vista with unprecedented narrative detail. In his most famous work, the Shrine of St. Ursula, he further developed this closely observed anecdotal genre.
The Triptych of the Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine (1479) represents Memling's highest achievement as a painter. In this work he skillfully combined compositional stability with great pictorial variety. Sparkling colors and luminous surfaces interact with solid, plastic forms and broad spatial recessions to create one of the great masterpieces of 15th-century Netherlandish painting.
As a portraitist, Memling further revealed his originality. The Diptych of Martin van Nieuwenhove contains a unique elaboration of the interior setting, and the famous portrait Man with a Medal is the first northern figure posed entirely against a landscape background.
When he died, Memling was one of the hundred wealthiest citizens of Bruges. He was also, in the words of a contemporary, "the most accomplished and excellent painter of the whole Christian world."
The major books on Memling are in German. Short accounts of his life and work are in two works in English: Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character (2 vols., 1953), and Margaret Dickens Whinney, Early Flemish Painting (1968). A brief monograph on Memling is Maur Guillaume-Linephty, The Shrine of St. Ursula (1939). □
Memling, Hans (1430–1494)
Memling, Hans (1430–1494)
Flemish painter whose works continued the richly colored and precisely drawn style of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden. Memling was born in the town of Seligenstadt, near Frankfurt, Germany, and as a young man moved to the city of Brussels, in Burgundy. He may have worked as an apprentice with van der Weyden, whose work had a strong influence. In 1466 he moved to the city of Bruges, a Flemish town that had grown wealthy from the wool trade and that offered many opportunities for a skilled painter to find patrons and commissions. Memling prospered by painting for churches, guilds, civic organizations, and private citizens, who commissioned the portraits that have become Memling's best-known works in modern times. His major works include an altarpiece known as the Seven Griefs of Mary, painted for the guild of booksellers of Bruges, and The Last Judgment, a work that Memling painted for a Bruges merchant that was stolen at sea by a pirate and brought to the cathedral of Gdansk, Poland. Memling's renown spread to Italy, where his works were in demand from wealthy collectors such as the Sforza rulers of Milan and the Medici of Florence. He painted a Virgin and Child for the English poet John Donne, for whom Memling also did a portrait with the poet's wife and children. Memling is also known for series pictures, including the Seven Griefs of Mary and the Seven Joys of Mary. His last great work was a series of six paintings done for a small shrine of Saint Ursula, commissioned by two nuns for the Hospital of Saint John in Bruges. He died a wealthy man and was regarded by many as one of the best painters in Europe.
See Also: van der Weyden, Rogier; van Eyck, Jan
Hans Memling (häns mĕm´lĬng, –lĬngk), c.1430–1494, Flemish religious and portrait painter, b. Germany. He may have studied with Roger van der Weyden in Brussels, but after 1466 he was in Bruges, working for Flemish patrons and for the many Italian businessmen there. His religious works reflect van der Weyden's figure types, but without their religious intensity. His portraits are more original, combining accuracy of representation with imaginative and varied treatment of the backgrounds. Details, such as flowers, animals, or architecture, are often sensitively observed. An example is his accurate view of Cologne Cathedral as it was in 1489 in the background of the St. Ursula Shrine panels (Bruges). His earliest known work is a triptych of The Madonna Enthroned with Saints and Donors (1468; Duke of Devonshire Coll., Chatsworth). Important works include The Adoration of the Magi Triptych and the Diptych of Martin van Nieuwenhoven (both Bruges); other pictures are in the Metropolitan Museum and the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City; the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; and the museums of San Diego, Houston, and Montreal.
See study by K. B. McFarlane (1972).