Jose Benito Churriguera
José Benito de Churriguera
José Benito de Churriguera
José Benito de Churriguera (1665-1725) was a Spanish architect and sculptor in the late baroque style. His artistic expression fused, with elaborate theatricality, the influences of Spain's late Renaissance style and that of the Roman baroque.
Until recently both Salamanca and Barcelona were cited as the probable birthplace of José Benito de Churriguera, but it is now known that he was born and died in Madrid. His obituary hailed him as "the Spanish Michelangelo," and his death occurred just in time for him to escape knowing the hysterically adverse criticism hurled at his works by the neoclassicists, who coined the term "Churrigueresque" to signify an accursed style of excess and extravagance. Ironically, these academicians sometimes praised works by him, believing them to have had other authors.
José Benito was one of a family of artists, of which he became the head after the death of his father, José Simónde Churriguera, in 1679. José Benito's brothers were Joaquin, Alberto, Manuel, and Miguel. Of the works of the three sons of José Benito—Matías, Jerónimo, and Nicolás, all architects—very little is known, no doubt because they were trained in a style rejected by their generation.
King Charles II named José Benito an architect for the royal works in 1690, although he did not begin to receive a salary for this office until 1696. In 1702 Teodoro Ardemans was named chief architect by King Philip V, and shortly thereafter Churriguera was accused of insubordination and presumption. The loss of royal patronage was balanced by the acquisition of a private patron, the banker Juan de Goyeneche. In addition, Churriguera had become the architect of Salamanca Cathedral in 1690. Although he worked almost exclusively in Madrid during the last 26 years of his life, his Salamanca appointment proved an "open sesame" to important commissions for his brothers and at least one of his sons.
Churriguera first attracted fame when he won the competition for the catafalque for Charles II's first queen, Maria Luisa d'Orleáns. This temporary monument was erected in the Church of the Encarnacíon, Madrid, and a sketch of it was published. His most famous altarpiece is that in the church of S. Esteban, Salamanca (1693). It is an architectural frame for sculptures, carved and gilded, with projections and recessions in monumental proportions and featuring Solomonic (twisted) columns. Despite the lavish ornament, the altarpiece has an impressive dignity achieved by rhythmic unity and harmonious proportions.
The most original architectural work by Churriguera is his urban layout for a new town, Nuevo Baztán, near Madrid. It was commissioned by Goyeneche to include a glass factory, workers' dwellings, a church, and a palace in a complex with three plazas. Its architectural austerity is reminiscent of the work of Juan de Herrera, and its asymmetry is unique as well as visually effective.
George Kubler and Martin Soria, Art and Architecture in Spain and Portugal and Their American Dominions, 1500-1800 (1959), lacks recently discovered facts on Churriguera and is often biased. Bernard Bevan, History of Spanish Architecture (1938), also contains information on him. □
Churriguera, José Benito
José Benito Churriguera (hōsā´ bānē´tō chōōr-rēgā´rä), 1665–1725, Spanish architect and sculptor. A native of Madrid, he won fame for his design (1689) of the great catafalque for Queen Maria Luisa and for his ornate retables, characterized by twisted columns and elaborate leafwork. After 1690 he served as architect of the Cathedral of Salamanca, although he returned to Madrid after 1699. There he built a private palace (now the Academia de San Fernando) for the banker Don Juan de Goyeneche and also designed for him the urban complex Nuevo Baztán. Associated with him were his brothers Joaquin and Alberto. The term Churrigueresque (chûr´ēgərĕsk´) describes the architecture of the late 17th and early 18th cent. in Spain, marked by extravagance of design and capricious use of Renaissance motives; the architects of the period used architectural forms to produce free and theatrical contrasts of line and surface with extreme richness and exuberance. The facade of the cathedral at Murcia illustrates the style's full expression. The Churrigueresque manner was an important influence on the Spanish colonial work in the United States and in Mexico, where the mission buildings are frequently naive examples of that style, much modified by lack of trained workmen.