John I (Portugal)
John I (king of Hungary)
John I (John Zapolya) (zä´pôlyŏ), 1487–1540, king of Hungary (1526–40), voivode [governor] of Transylvania (1511–26). He was born John Zapolya, the son of Stephen Zápolya. The leader of the antiforeign party of the Hungarian nobles, he secured a decree at the diet of 1505 by which no foreign ruler would be chosen king of Hungary after the death of the ruling king, Uladislaus II. To strengthen his own candidacy for the crown he sought to marry the king's daughter, Anna, but his suit was rejected and he was removed from the court through his appointment as voivode of Transylvania. He ruthlessly crushed a peasant uprising in 1514. His anger at the marriage of Anna to Ferdinand of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I) probably motivated his failure to assist Uladislaus' son, King Louis II of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács (1526). Louis II was killed in the battle. John was crowned king by the Hungarian nobles, but Ferdinand claimed the crown on the basis of his marriage with Anna as well as previous agreements. In 1527, Ferdinand defeated John and was crowned by John's opponents. John retired to his stronghold in the Carpathians. In 1529 the Ottomans began to overrun Hungary. John now descended upon and defeated Ferdinand's army and, after surrendering the crown to Sultan Sulayman I, was confirmed king by the sultan, who exercised real control. The struggle between John and Ferdinand ended in 1538, when John, who was then childless, agreed that the crown should pass to Ferdinand after his death. John set aside the agreement when, a few months before his death, a son, John Sigismund (John II), was born.
John I (Spanish king of Castile and León)
John I, 1358–90, Spanish king of Castile and León (1379–90), son and successor of Henry II. He tried unsuccessfully to unite the Portuguese and Castilian crowns but was twice defeated by the Portuguese, notably in the battle of Aljubarrota (1385). He defended his crown against John of Gaunt and married his son Henry to John of Gaunt's daughter. Henry succeeded him as Henry III.
John I (king of France)
John I or John the Posthumous, 1316, king of France, posthumous son of King Louis X. He lived only five days and was succeeded by his uncle, Philip V. According to legend, a dying child was substituted for John, who was then brought up by a merchant in Siena. In the mid-1300s a Sienese named Giannino di Guccio became convinced that he was John I and trekked through Europe seeking recognition as the rightful sovereign.
See T. di C. Falconieri, The Man Who Believed He Was King of France (2008).
John I (Byzantine emperor)
John I (John Tzimisces) (tsĬmĬs´ēz), c.925–976, Byzantine emperor (969–76). With the aid of Emperor Nicephorus II's wife, Theophano, John had Nicephorus murdered and himself proclaimed emperor. John gained the favor of the patriarch of Constantinople by revoking his predecessor's anticlerical legislation. He regained E Bulgaria from the Russians and extended Byzantine power in Syria at the expense of the Muslims. He was succeeded by Basil II.
John I (king of Aragón and count of Barcelona)
John I, 1350–95, king of Aragón and count of Barcelona (1387–95), son and successor of Peter IV. During his reign Aragón lost (1388) the duchy of Athens. An enthusiastic patron of learning and an imitator of French customs, he held one of the most brilliant courts of the time. He was succeeded by his brother, Martin I.