Carlos

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Carlos (Carlos María Isidro de Borbón), 1788–1855, second son of Charles IV of Spain. He was the first Carlist pretender. After his father's abdication (1808) he was, with the rest of his family, held a prisoner in France until 1814. A conservative and a devout Catholic, he was supported by the clerical party when he refused to recognize Isabella, daughter of his brother, Ferdinand VII, as successor to the Spanish throne. When his niece became queen (1833) as Isabella II, Don Carlos took up arms. Defeated in 1839, he escaped to France and renounced his claim in favor of his son, Don Carlos, conde de Montemolín. See Carlists.

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Carlos, 1545–68, prince of the Asturias, son of Philip II of Spain and Maria of Portugal. Don Carlos, who seems to have been mentally unbalanced and subject to fits of homicidal mania, was imprisoned by his father in 1568. When he died shortly afterward, it was rumored (falsely) that Philip had poisoned him. Friedrich von Schiller deliberately idealized his character in his tragedy Don Carlos, portraying him as a champion of liberalism, unhappily in love with his stepmother, Elizabeth of Valois.

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Carlos (1788–1855) Spanish prince and pretender to the throne. His elder brother, Ferdinand VII, changed Spanish law so that his daughter Isabella II succeeded him (1833). Carlos was proclaimed king by the Carlists, and civil war ensued. Isabella won (1840), and Carlos went into exile. In 1845 he resigned his claim in favour of his son Don Carlos II.

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Carlos: For Spanish and Portuguese kings thus named, use Charles.