John III (king of Poland)
John III (John Sobieski) (sôbyĕ´skē), 1624–96, king of Poland (1674–96), champion of Christian Europe against the Ottomans. Born to an ancient noble family, he was appointed (1668) commander of the Polish army. He defeated (1673) the Ottomans at Khotin shortly after the death of King Michael, and in 1674 he was elected to succeed Michael. John's plans to recover East Prussia led him to conclude alliances with France (1675) and Sweden (1677) against Frederick William of Brandenburg (the Great Elector). However, the emphasis of his foreign policy changed when Sultan Muhammad IV and the Hungarians under Thököly advanced against Austria. Realizing the danger to all Europe, John allied (1683) with Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and, leading combined imperial and Polish forces, raised the siege of Vienna and defeated the much larger Ottoman army under Kara Mustapha. Despite Leopold's ungrateful reception, John continued his campaign and pursued the Ottomans into Hungary. In 1684 he formed a Holy League with the pope, the emperor, and Venice. In 1686 he made a treaty with Russia that confirmed Russian suzerainty in E Ukraine. However, John's attempts (1684–91) to secure access to the Black Sea by wresting Moldavia and Walachia from the Ottoman Empire were unsuccessful. His loss of military prestige encouraged the nobles to oppose him at home. John's death, followed by the choice of the elector of Saxony as King Augustus II of Poland, marked the virtual end of Polish independence.
"John III (king of Poland)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/john-iii-king-poland
"John III (king of Poland)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/john-iii-king-poland
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
John III Sobieski
"John III Sobieski." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/john-iii-sobieski
"John III Sobieski." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/john-iii-sobieski