Muhammad VI (king of Morocco)

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Muhammad VI or Mehmet VI, 1861–1926, last Ottoman sultan (1918–22), brother and successor of Muhammad V. He became sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) near the end of World War I and soon capitulated to the Allies, who occupied Constantinople and sought to rule through him what remained of Turkey. He consented to the extremely harsh peace terms of the Allies (see Sèvres, Treaty of). In the meantime Kemal Atatürk gained control over Anatolia; after his victory over the Greeks he turned on Muhammad, who was deposed in 1922. The sultanate was abolished and the republic of Turkey established. Muhammad fled and died in exile. After his flight he was deposed as caliph, in which capacity he was succeeded by his cousin, Abd al-Majid. In 1924 the caliphate was abolished and all members of the Ottoman house were exiled. Muhammad VI died at San Remo, Italy.

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Muhammad VI, 1963–, king of Morocco (1999–), formerly Muhammad ben Al-Hassan, crown prince Sidi Muhammad. He studied at Muhammad V Univ., Rabat, where he received bachelor's (1985) and master's (1988) degrees in law, and at the Univ. of Nice, France, where he obtained (1993) his doctorate in law. In the 1990s, as the health of his father King Hassan II declined, the crown price assumed a greater role in the government. In 1994 he was promoted to general and became coordinator of the Royal Armed Forces, and in 1998 he initiated a wide-ranging antipoverty program. When Hassan died in 1999, the crown price succeeded him as Muhammad VI. More moderate than his father, he has made moves toward various social and economic improvements. In 2011, in response to demonstrations calling for political reform, he supported constitutional amendments that reduced his powers somewhat.