Choiseul, Étienne François, duc de
Étienne François Choiseul, duc de (ātyĕn´ fräNswä´ dük də shwäzöl´), 1719–85, French statesman. After successful service in the army he entered the diplomatic service and gained support from Mme de Pompadour. As ambassador to Vienna (1757) he strengthened the Austrian alliance by conducting first negotiations toward the marriage of Marie Antoinette with the future Louis XVI. Later, in his capacity as minister of foreign affairs (1758–70), Choiseul negotiated the Family Compact and the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years War, and he annexed Lorraine (1766) and Corsica (1768). As minister of war (1761–70) and of the navy (1761–66) he reorganized the fighting forces and introduced reforms. He supported the publication of the Encyclopédie and aided suppression of the Jesuits, which weakened his position at court. A clique surrounding King Louis XV's mistress Mme Du Barry caused his exile from court (1770).
See his memoirs (1790).
"Choiseul, Étienne François, duc de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/choiseul-etienne-francois-duc-de
"Choiseul, Étienne François, duc de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/choiseul-etienne-francois-duc-de
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Choiseul, Etienne François, Duc de
"Choiseul, Etienne François, Duc de." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/choiseul-etienne-francois-duc-de
"Choiseul, Etienne François, Duc de." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/choiseul-etienne-francois-duc-de