Skip to main content
Select Source:

Lander, Richard Lemon

Richard Lemon Lander, 1804–34, English explorer. He accompanied Clapperton to the Niger River in 1827 and brought back Clapperton's journal, which was published (1829) with an account of Lander's return to the coast. Accompanied by his brother John Lander (1807–39), he led an expedition (1830–31) to determine the course of the lower Niger and discovered that the river emptied into the Bight of Benin. The brothers published their combined journals (3 vol., 1832). Richard Lander died of wounds received on a trading expedition to the Niger (1832–34); an account of the trip was published by survivors, Macgregor Laird and R. A. K. Oldfield.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Lander, Richard Lemon." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Lander, Richard Lemon." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lander-richard-lemon

"Lander, Richard Lemon." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lander-richard-lemon

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Lander, Richard Lemon

Lander, Richard Lemon (1804–34). Originally from Cornwall, Lander was a servant of Clapperton to whom he showed great loyalty on the expedition to what is now northern Nigeria. After Clapperton's death in 1827, he returned to London and was soon commissioned by the government to return to west Africa in 1830, this time penetrating from the Guinea Coast to Bussa on the Niger. Lander then followed the river down to its outlet on the coast, solving the age-old problem of the great river's course and termination. He died on a later expedition to west Africa.

Roy C. Bridges

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Lander, Richard Lemon." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Lander, Richard Lemon." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lander-richard-lemon

"Lander, Richard Lemon." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved November 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lander-richard-lemon

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.