John Graham of Claverhouse 1st Viscount Dundee

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John Graham of Claverhouse Dundee, 1st Viscount (klăv´ərəs, dŭndē´), 1649?–1689, Scottish soldier, known as Bonnie Dundee. After service abroad under William of Orange (later William III of England), he returned (1678) to Scotland to help in the suppression of the Covenanters, a task to which he devoted himself for 10 years. He was second in command of the Scottish force vainly sent to help James II repel William of Orange in 1688, and James made him Viscount Dundee. After James's flight, Dundee raised forces in Scotland to help restore him, but was killed in his hour of victory at Killiecrankie. Loathed by the Covenanters and venerated by the Jacobites, Dundee has been immortalized in ballads and novels, especially in Sir Walter Scott's song usually called Bonnie Dundee and in Scott's Old Mortality.

See his memorials and letters (ed. by M. Napier, 1859–62); biographies by C. S. Terry (1905) and A. N. and H. A. N. Taylor (1939).

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Dundee, John Graham, 1st Viscount [S] (1648–89). John Graham of Claverhouse was heir to a small estate 10 miles from Dundee. He was educated at the University of St Andrews, and in the 1670s served in the Dutch and French armies. He next accepted a commission in the Scots cavalry. A conservative royalist and episcopalian, he made a career in internal security duties against presbyterian radicals. Politically, he allied with the Drummond brothers and with James, duke of York (later James II). After 1685 the Drummonds ruled Scotland for James, and Claverhouse was made provost of Dundee and a viscount.

After the Glorious Revolution, he rebelled against the provisional government of Scotland in 1689. He could only raise a small army, mainly Highlanders, but his Williamite opponent, the Highlander General Hugh Mackay of Scourie, had few seasoned troops and was routed at Killiecrankie in Strathtay. Dundee died in the battle. His army failed to break into the Lowlands and disintegrated after defeat.

Bruce Philip Lenman