Marcus Livius Drusus
Marcus Livius Drusus
Marcus Livius Drusus (ca. 124-91 B.C.) was a Roman statesman who attempted to unite the nobility with the equestrian order and to reconcile the cities of Italy to the rule of Rome.
Drusus was a member of a great plebeian family, the son and grandson of consuls. Drusus' mother belonged to the great patrician family of the Cornelii; his wife was Servilia, daughter of the Optimate leader Q. Servilius Caepio; and his sister Livia was married to Servilia's brother, also named Q. Servilius Caepio.
It was inevitable that a man of Drusus' wealth and family connections should enter politics. He was elected a military tribune (ca. 105 B.C.), became one of the decemviri stilitibus judicandis, a court of 10 which decided cases as to whether a man was free or a slave (ca. 104), and was chosen a quaestor (ca. 102), the first step on the ladder of public office for aspiring Roman politicians. He was aedile in 94 and became a pontifex at some unknown time, an office which he held until his death.
On Dec. 10, 92, Drusus became a plebeian tribune and used his own influence and the powers of this office to propose an extraordinary series of reforms designed to solve the major domestic problems of the day. He proposed to placate the poor citizens by suggesting the establishment of 12 colonies in Italy to which they could migrate, with a free distribution of land. To smooth relations between the Senate and the equestrian order (equites), Drusus wanted to restore to the senators the right, taken from them by C. Gracchus and given to the equites, of sitting on the juries which decided cases of alleged corruption in office. Equestrian opposition was to be overcome by doubling the size of the Senate by adding 300 equites to it. The restive cities of Italy Drusus wanted to conciliate by extending Roman citizenship to all Italians.
These proposals were adopted into law by the assembly of all citizens, but they violated Roman law providing that one bill of proposals could not contain several unrelated topics; force had been used as well. This gave an opportunity to Drusus' opponents to reopen the question. His brother-in-law Caepio, who had quarreled with him and had divorced his sister Livia, and the consul Marcus Philippus led the opposition. After violent agitation and threats of mass movements in support of Drusus by the Italians, Drusus' enemies persuaded a majority of the Senate to declare all of these laws invalid. The results were tragic: Drusus was murdered in his home, his supporters were subjected to prosecution in the law courts, and the Italians rose in open rebellion in the Social War (91-87).
There is no book-length work on Drusus. The best summary of his career is that by Hugh Last in the Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 9 (1932; corrected repr. 1951). For general background see Matthias Gelzer, The Roman Nobility (1912; trans. 1969); A. N. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship (1939); and H. H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero (1959). □
"Marcus Livius Drusus." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marcus-livius-drusus
"Marcus Livius Drusus." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved September 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marcus-livius-drusus
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Drusus (drōō´səs), Roman family of the gens Livius. An early distinguished member was Marcus Livius Drusus, d. 109? BC, tribune of the people (122) with Caius Sempronius Gracchus (see under Gracchi). As a member of the senatorial party he led a successful attack on Gracchus by making more extreme democratic proposals than Gracchus had dared to. By these and other, more unscrupulous tactics, Drusus disgraced Gracchus. In 112, Drusus was made consul by the senatorial party. His son Marcus Livius Drusus, d. 91 BC, was also a leader of the senatorial party. His policy was to win the people and the Italian allies over to the senate, so that the senate might recover from the knights (equites) the control of the courts. By a general increase in the franchise he won the support of the people and of the Italians, but the senate, alarmed over popular unrest, annulled Drusus' laws. The Italians were infuriated, and the Social War between Rome and the Italians broke out. Drusus was assassinated. A member of the family by adoption was Livia Drusilla, mother of Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, 38 BC–9 BC, called Drusus Senior; he was the stepson of Augustus. He fought (15 BC) against the Rhaetians and gained much credit for his generalship. In 13 BC–12 BC he was in Gaul pacifying the tribes, and on his return to Rome he was made (11 BC) urban praetor. Returning to the provinces, he ravaged Germany E and N of the Rhine. He fortified the Rhine but put the Germans under no permanent subjection. He died in Germany. His brother was the emperor Tiberius. He married Antonia Minor, the daughter of Antony, and had three children, Germanicus Caesar, Livilla, and Claudius I. Tiberius' son, Drusus Caesar, d. AD 23, called Drusus Junior, served in the provinces—in Pannonia (AD 15) and in Illyricum (AD 17–AD 20). In AD 22 he was made tribune. Meanwhile, Sejanus, Tiberius' minister, had become jealous of Drusus' power and tried to turn Tiberius against him. Drusus may have been poisoned by Sejanus or by his wife under Sejanus' influence.
"Drusus." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/drusus
"Drusus." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/drusus