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Communication Skills and Disorders

Communication skills and disorders

The skills needed to use language (spoken, written, signed, or otherwise communicated) to interact with others, and problems related to the development of these skills.

Language employs symbolswords, gestures, or spoken soundsto represent objects and ideas. Communication of language begins with spoken sounds combined with gestures, relying on two different types of skills. Children first acquire the skills to receive communications, that is, listening to and understanding what they hear (supported by accompanying gestures). Next, they will begin experimenting with expressing themselves through speaking and gesturing. Speaking will begin as repetitive syllables, followed by words, phrases, and sentences. Later, children will acquire the skills of reading and writing, the written forms of communication. Although milestones are discussed for the development of these skills of communication, many children begin speaking significantly earlier or later than the milestone date. Parents should refrain from attaching too much significance to either deviation from the average. When a child's deviation from the average milestones of development cause the parents concern, they may contact a pediatrician or other professional for advice.

Spoken language problems are referred to by a number of labels, including language delay , language disability , or a specific type of language disability. In general, experts distinguish between those people who seem to be slow in developing spoken language (language delay) and those who seem to have difficulty achieving a milestone of spoken language (language disorders). Language disorders include stuttering; articulation disorders, such as substituting one sound for another (tandy for candy), omitting a sound (canny for candy), or distorting a sound (shlip for sip); and voice disorders, such as inappropriate pitch, volume, or quality. Causes can be related to hearing,

COMMUNICATION MILESTONE
Age Milestone
012 months
  • Responds to speech by looking at the speaker; responds differently to aspects of speakers voice (such as friendly or angry, male or female).
  • Turns head in direction of sound.
  • Responds with gestures to greetings such as "hi," "bye-bye," and "up" when these words are accompanied by appropriate gestures by speaker.
  • Stops ongoing activity when told "no," when speaker uses appropriate gesture and tone.
  • May say two or three words by around 12 months of age, although probably not clearly.
  • Repeats some vowel and consonant sounds (babbles) when alone or spoken to; attempts to imitate sounds.
1224 months
  • Responds correctly when asked "where?"
  • Understands prepositions on, in, and under; and understands simple phrases (such as "Get the ball.")
  • Says 810 words by around age 18 months; by age two, vocabulary will include 2050 words, mostly describing people, common objects, and events (such as "more" and "all gone").
  • Uses single word plus a gesture to ask for objects.
  • Refers to self by name; uses "my" or "mine."
2436 months
  • Points to pictures of common objects when they are named.
  • Can identify objects when told their use.
  • Understands questions with "what" and "where" and negatives "no." "not," "can't," and don't."
  • Responds to simple directions.
  • Selects and looks at picture books; enjoys listening to simple stories, and asks for them to be read aloud again.
  • Joins two vocabulary words together to make a phrase.
  • Can say first and last name.
  • Shows frustration at not being understood.
3648 months
  • Begins to understand time concepts, such as "today," "later," "tomorrow," and "yesterday."
  • Understands comparisons, such as "big" and "bigger."
  • Forms sentences with three or more words.
  • Speech is understandable to most strangers, but some sound errors may persists (such as "t" sound for "k" sound).
4860 months
  • By 48 months, has a vocabulary of over 200 words.
  • Follows two or three unrelated commands in proper order.
  • Understands sequencing of events, for example, "First we have to go to the grocery store, and then we can go to the playground."
  • Ask questions using "when," "how," and why." Talks about causes for things using "because."

nerve/muscle disorders, head injury, viral diseases, mental retardation , drug abuse, or cleft lip or palate.

Further Reading

Bates, Elizabeth, and Jeffrey Elman. "Learning Rediscovered." Science 274, (December 13, 1996): 1849+.

Berko-Gleason, J. The Development of Language. New York: Macmillan, 1993.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Language Explosion." Newsweek 129, (Spring-Summer 1997): 16+.

Goodluck, H. Language Acquisition: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1991.

Pinker, S. The Language Instinct. New York: Morrow, 1994.

Further Information

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 1801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, voice or TTY (301)8978682, voice or TTY (800) 6388255. Email: ircasha.org. www.asha.org. (Publishes brochures, booklets, and fact sheets on speech-language pathology.)

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892. Email: [email protected] www.nih.gov/nidcd/.

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Communication skills and disorders

Communication skills and disorders

Definition

Communication skills are the skills needed to use language (spoken, written, signed, or otherwise communicated) to interact with others, and communication disorders are problems related to the development of these skills.

Description

Language employs symbolswords, gestures, or spoken soundsto represent objects and ideas. Communication of language begins with spoken sounds combined with gestures, relying on two different types of skills. Children first acquire the skills to receive communications, that is, the ability to listen and understand what they hear (supported by accompanying gestures). Next, they will begin experimenting with expressing themselves through speaking and gesturing. Speaking will begin as repetitive syllables, followed by words, phrases, and sentences. Later, children will acquire the skills of reading and writingthe written forms of communication. Although milestones are discussed for development of these skills, many children begin speaking significantly earlier or later than the milestone date. Parents should refrain from attaching too much significance to either deviation from the average. When a child's deviation from the average does cause the parents concern, they may contact a pediatrician or other professional for advice.

Spoken language problems are referred to by a number of labels, including language delay, language disability, or a specific type of language disability. In general, experts distinguish between those people who seem to be slow in developing spoken language (language delay) and those who seem to have difficulty achieving a milestone of spoken language (language disorders). Language disorders include stuttering ; articulation disorders, such as substituting one sound for another (tandy for candy), omitting a sound (canny for candy), or distorting a sound (shlip for sip); and voice disorders, such as inappropriate pitch, volume, or quality. Causes can be related to hearing, nerve/muscle disorders, head injury, viral diseases, mental retardation , drug abuse, or cleft lip or palate.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (also known as the DSM-IV-TR ), published by the American Psychiatric Association, lists the following disorders as communication disorders:

  • Expressive language disorder: Disorder characterized by impairment in expressive language development.
  • Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder : Impairment in both receptive and expressive language development. The affected child has a more difficult time understanding and expressing language as compared to peers.
  • Phonological disorder : Inability to use expected speech sounds appropriate for the child's age and dialect.
  • Stuttering: Unexpected disturbances in the normal patterns and flow of speech.
  • Communication disorder not otherwise specified: This may be diagnosed when a child has an irregularity in speech or a difficulty (in voice or pitch, etc.) but the child's symptoms do not exactly match any of the specific categories of impairment that the DSM recognizes.

See also Speech-language pathology

Resources

BOOKS

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth edition, text revised. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Language Explosion." Newsweek 129 (Spring-Summer 1997).

ORGANIZATIONS

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD, 20852. (800) 638-8255. <http://www.asha.org>.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892. <http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/>.

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"Communication skills and disorders." Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. . Retrieved September 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/communication-skills-and-disorders

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Communication Skills and Disorders

Communication Skills and Disorders

Definition

Description

Resources

Definition

Communication skills are the skills needed to use language (spoken, written, signed, or otherwise communicated) to interact with others, and communication disorders are problems related to the development of these skills.

Description

Language employs symbols—words, gestures, or spoken sounds—to represent objects and ideas. Communication of language begins with spoken sounds combined with gestures, relying on two different types of skills. Children first acquire the skills to receive communications; that is, the ability to listen and understand what they hear (supported by accompanying gestures). Next, they begin experimenting with expressing themselves through speaking and gesturing. Speaking begins as repetitive syllables, followed by words, phrases, and sentences. Later, children learn the skills of reading and writing, which are the written forms of communication. Although milestones are described for development of these skills, many children begin speaking significantly earlier or later than the milestone date. Parents should refrain from attaching too much significance to either deviation from the average. When a child’s deviation from the average does cause the parents concern, they can contact a pediatrician or other professional for advice.

Spoken language problems are referred to using a number of designations, including language delay, language disability, or a specific type of language disability. In general, experts distinguish between those people who seem to be slow in developing spoken language (language delay) and those who seem to have difficulty achieving a milestone of spoken language (language disorders). Language disorders include stuttering ; articulation disorders, such as substituting one sound for another (tandy for candy), omitting a sound (canny for candy), or distorting a sound (shlip for sip); and voice disorders, such as inappropriate pitch, volume, or quality. Causes can be related to hearing, nerve/muscle disorders, head injury, viral diseases, mental retardation, drug abuse, or cleft lip or palate.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (also known as the DSM-IV-TR), published by the American Psychiatric Association, lists the following disorders as communication disorders:

  • Expressive language disorder: Disorder characterized by impairment in expressive language development.
  • Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder: Impairment in both receptive and expressive language development. The affected child has a more difficult time understanding and expressing language as compared to peers.
  • Phonological disorder: Inability to use expected speech sounds appropriate for the child’s age and dialect.
  • Stuttering: Unexpected disturbances in the normal patterns and flow of speech.
  • Communication disorder not otherwise specified: This may be diagnosed when a child has an irregularity in speech or a difficulty (in voice or pitch, etc.) but the child’s symptoms do not exactly match any of the specific categories of impairment that the DSM recognizes.

See alsoSpeech-language pathology.

Resources

BOOKS

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text rev. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

PERIODICALS

Cowley, Geoffrey. “The Language Explosion.” Newsweek 129 (Spring-Summer 1997): 16–22.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone: (800) 638-8255. <http://www.asha.org>.

The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America. <http://www.apraxia-kids.org/>.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, MD, 20892. <http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/>. This agency also has a Web site, “What is voice, what is speech, what is language?” at: <http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/whatis_vsl.htm>.

The National Institutes of Health. <http://health.nih.gov/result.asp/612>.

Emily Jane Willingham, PhD

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"Communication Skills and Disorders." The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Communication Skills and Disorders." The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health. . Retrieved September 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/communication-skills-and-disorders

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Citation styles

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Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.