Skip to main content
Select Source:

Enterostomy

Enterostomy

Definition

An enterostomy is an operation in which the surgeon makes a passage into the patient's small intestine through the abdomen with an opening to allow for drainage or to insert a tube for feeding. The opening is called a stoma, from the Greek word for mouth. Enterostomies may be either temporary or permanent. They are classified according to the part of the intestine that is used to create the stoma. If the ileum, which is the lowest of the three sections of the small intestine, is used to make the stoma, the operation is called an ileostomy. If the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine, is used, the operation is called a jejunostomy. Some people use the word ostomy as a word that covers all types of enterostomies.

Purpose

Enterostomies are performed in order to create a new opening for the passage of fecal matter when normal intestinal functioning is interrupted or when diseases of the intestines cannot be treated by medications or less radical surgery. Some situations that may require enterostomies include:

  • Healing of inflamed bowel segments. Enterostomies performed for this reason are usually temporary.
  • Emergency treatment of gunshot or other penetrating wounds of the abdomen. An enterostomy is needed to prevent the contents of the intestine from causing a serious inflammation of the inside of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis ). These enterostomies are also often temporary.
  • Placement of a tube for enteral feeding. Enteral feeding is a method for conveying nutritional solutions directly into the stomach or jejunum through a tube. Tube enterostomies may be long-term but are not permanent.
  • Removal of diseased sections of the intestines. Ileostomies performed for this reason are permanent. The most common disorders requiring permanent ileostomy are Crohn's disease, familial polyposis, and ulcerative colitis. Familial polyposis and ulcerative colitis are serious health risks because they can develop into cancer.
  • Treatment of advanced cancer or other causes of intestinal obstruction.

Precautions

Enterostomies are usually performed only as emergency treatments for traumatic injuries in the abdomen or as final measures for serious disorders of the intestines. Most patients do not refuse to have the operation performed when the need for it is explained to them. A small minority, however, refuse enterostomies because of strong psychological reactions to personal disfigurement and the need to relearn bowel habits.

Description

Ileostomy

Ileostomies represent about 25% of enterostomies. They are performed after the surgeon removes a diseased colon and sometimes the rectum as well. The most common ileostomy is called a Brooke ileostomy after the English surgeon who developed it. In a Brooke ileostomy, the surgeon makes the stoma in the lower right section of the abdomen. The ileum is pulled through an opening (incision) in the muscle layer. The surgeon then turns the cut end of the intestine inside out and sews it to the edges of the hole. He or she then positions an appliance for collecting the fecal material. The appliance consists of a plastic bag that fits over the stoma and lies flat against the abdomen. The patient is taught to drain the bag from time to time during the day. Ileostomies need to be emptied frequently because the digested food contains large amounts of water. Shortly after the operation, the ileostomy produces 1-2 qt.(0.9-1.9 l) of fluid per day; after a month or two of adjustment, the volume decreases to 1-2 pt (0.5-0.9) per day.

KOCK POUCH (CONTINENT ILEOSTOMY). The Kock pouch is a variation of the basic ileostomy and is named for its Swedish inventor. In the Kock technique, the surgeon forms a pouch inside the abdominal cavity behind the stoma that collects the fecal material. The stoma is shaped into a valve to prevent fluid from leaking onto the patient's abdomen. The patient then empties the pouch several times daily by inserting a tube (catheter) through the valve. The Kock technique is sometimes called a continent ileostomy because the fluid is contained inside the abdomen. It is successful in 70-90% of patients who have it done.

Jejunostomy

A jejunostomy is similar to an ileostomy except that the stoma is placed in the second section of the small intestine rather than the third. Jejunostomies are performed less frequently than ileostomies. They are almost always temporary procedures.

Tube enterostomies

Tube enterostomies are operations in which the surgeon makes a stoma into the stomach itself or the jejunum in order to insert a tube for liquid nutrients. Tube enterostomies are performed in patients who need tube feeding for longer than six weeks, or who have had recent mouth or nose surgery. As long as the patient's intestinal tract can function, tube feedings are considered preferable to intravenous feeding. Enteral nutrition is safer than intravenous fluids and helps to keep the patient's digestive tract functioning.

Preparation

Preoperative preparation includes both patient education and physical preparation.

Patient education

If the patient is going to have a permanent ileostomy, the doctor will explain what will happen during the operation and why it is necessary. Most patients are willing to accept an ostomy as an alternative to the chronic pain and diarrhea of ulcerative colitis or the risk of cancer from other intestinal disorders. The patient can also meet with an enterostomal therapist (ET) or a member of the United Ostomy Association, which is a support group for people with ostomies.

Medical preparation

The patient is prepared for surgery with an evaluation of his or her nutritional status, possible need for blood transfusions, and antibiotics if necessary. If the patient does not have an intestinal obstruction or severe inflammation, he or she may be given a large quantity of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution to cleanse the intestines before surgery.

Aftercare

Aftercare of an enterostomy is both psychological and medical.

Medical aftercare

If the enterostomy is temporary, aftercare consists of the usual monitoring of surgical wounds for infection or bleeding. If the patient has had a permanent ileostomy, aftercare includes learning to use the appliance or empty the Kock pouch; learning to keep the stoma clean; and readjusting bathroom habits. Recovery takes a long time because major surgery is a shock to the system and the intestines take several days to resume normal functioning. The patient's fluid intake and output will be checked frequently to minimize the risk of dehydration.

Patient education

Ileostomy patients must learn to watch their fluid and salt intake. They are at greater risk of becoming dehydrated in hot weather, from exercise, or from diarrhea. In some cases they may need extra bananas or orange juice in the diet to keep up the level of potassium in the blood.

Patient education includes social concerns as well as physical self-care. Many ileostomy patients are worried about the effects of the operation on their close relationships and employment. If the patient has not seen an ET before the operation, the aftercare period is a good time to find out about self-help and support groups. The ET can also evaluate the patient's emotional reactions to the ostomy.

Risks

Enterostomies are not considered high-risk operations by themselves. About 40% of ileostomy patients have complications afterward, however; about 15% require minor surgical corrections. Possible complications include:

  • skin irritation caused by leakage of digestive fluids onto the skin around the stoma; Irritation is the most common complication of ileostomies
  • diarrhea
  • the development of abscesses
  • gallstones or stones in the urinary tract
  • inflammation of the ileum
  • odors can often be prevented by a change in diet
  • intestinal obstruction
  • a section of the bowel pushing out of the body (prolapse)

Normal results

Normal results include recovery from the surgery with few or no complications. About 95% of people with ostomies recover completely, are able to return to work, and consider themselves to be in good health. Many ileostomy patients enjoy being able to eat a full range of foods rather than living on a restricted diet. Some patients, however, need to be referred to psychotherapists to deal with depression or other emotional problems after the operation.

Resources

ORGANIZATIONS

United Ostomy Association, Inc. (UOA). 19772 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 200, Irvine, CA 92612-2405. (800) 826-0826. http://www.uoa.org.

KEY TERMS

Crohn's disease A disease of the intestines that causes inflammation leading to scarring, thickening of the walls of the intestine, and eventual obstruction.

Duodenum The first of the three segments of the small intestine. The duodenum connects the stomach and the jejunum.

Enteral nutrition A technique for feeding patients with liquid formulas conveyed directly into the stomach or jejunum through tubes.

Enterostomal therapist (ET) A specialized counselor, usually a registered nurse, who provides ostomy patients with education and counseling before the operation. After surgery, the ET helps the patient learn to take care of the stoma and appliance, and offers long-term emotional support.

Familial polyposis A disease that runs in families in which lumps of tissue (polyps) form inside the colon. Familial polyposis may develop into cancer.

Ileum The third segment of the small intestine, connecting the jejunum and the large intestine.

Jejunum The second of the three segments of the small intestine, connecting the duodenum and the ileum.

Kock pouch A type of ileostomy in which the surgeon forms an artificial rectum from a section of the ileum. A Kock pouch is sometimes called a continent ileostomy because it is drained with a tube.

Ostomy A common term for all types of enterostomies.

Stoma The surgically constructed mouth or passage between the intestine and the outside of the patient's body.

Tube enterostomy An enterostomy performed to allow the insertion of a feeding tube into the jejunum or stomach.

Ulcerative colitis A disease of the colon characterized by inflammation of the mucous lining, ulcerated areas of tissue, and bloody diarrhea.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/enterostomy

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. . Retrieved September 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/enterostomy

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

enterostomy

enterostomy (en-ter-ost-ŏmi) n. an operation in which the small intestine is brought through the abdominal wall and opened (see duodenostomy, jejunostomy, ileostomy) or is joined to the stomach (gastroenterostomy) or to another loop of small intestine (enteroenterostomy).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"enterostomy." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"enterostomy." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/enterostomy

"enterostomy." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Retrieved September 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/enterostomy

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Enterostomy

Enterostomy

Definition

An enterostomy is a procedure in which the surgeon makes a passage into the patient's small intestine through an incision in the abdomen, leaving an opening to allow for drainage or to insert a feeding tube. The opening is called a stoma from the Greek word meaning mouth. Enterostomies may be either temporary or permanent. They are classified according to the part of the intestine that is used to create the stoma. If the ileum, which is the lowest of the three sections of the small intestine, is used to make the stoma, the operation is called an ileostomy. If the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine, is used, the operation is called a jejunostomy. Some people use the word ostomy as a word that covers all types of enterostomies.

Purpose

Enterostomies are performed to create a new opening for the passage of fecal matter when normal intestinal functioning is interrupted or when diseases of the intestines cannot be treated by medications or less radical surgery. Some situations that may require enterostomies include:

  • Healing of inflamed bowel segments. Enterostomies performed for this reason are usually temporary.
  • Emergency treatment of gunshot or other penetrating wounds of the abdomen. An enterostomy may be required to prevent the contents of the intestine from causing a serious inflammation of the inside of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis). These enterostomies are also usually temporary.
  • Placement of a tube for enteral feeding. Enteral feeding is a method for conveying nutritional solutions directly into the stomach or jejunum through a tube. Tube enterostomies may be long term, but are not permanent.
  • Removal of diseased sections of the intestines. Ileostomies performed for this reason are permanent. The most common disorders requiring permanent ileostomy are Crohn's disease, familial polyposis, and ulcerative colitis. Familial polyposis and ulcerative colitis are serious health risks because they can develop into cancer.
  • Treatment of advanced cancer or other causes of intestinal obstruction.

Precautions

Enterostomies are usually performed only as emergency treatments for traumatic injuries in the abdomen or as final measures for serious disorders of the intestines. Most patients do not refuse the procedure once the need for it is explained. A small minority, however, refuse enterostomies because of strong psychological reactions to personal disfigurement and the need to relearn bowel habits.

Description

Ileostomy

Ileostomies represent about 25% of enterostomies. They are performed after the surgeon removes a diseased colon and sometimes the rectum as well. The most common ileostomy is called a Brooke ileostomy after the English surgeon who developed it. In a Brooke ileostomy, the surgeon makes the stoma in the lower right section of the abdomen. The ileum is pulled through an opening (incision) in the muscle layer. The surgeon then turns the cut end of the intestine inside out and sews it to the edges of the hole. He or she then positions an appliance for collecting the fecal material. The appliance consists of a plastic bag that fits over the stoma and lies flat against the abdomen. The patient is taught to drain the bag from time to time during the day. The bag needs to be emptied frequently because the digested food contains large amounts of water. Shortly after the operation, the ileostomy produces one to two quarts of fluid per day. However, after a month or two of adjustment, the volume decreases to one or two pints per day. Nearly 30% of patients receiving the Brooke ileostomy for inflammatory bowel disease develop at least a limited infection. Another 20-25% require at least a minor surgical revision.

KOCK POUCH (CONTINENT ILEOSTOMY). The Kock pouch is a variation of the basic ileostomy and is named for its Swedish inventor. In the Kock technique the surgeon forms a pouch inside the abdominal cavity behind the stoma to collect fecal material. The stoma is shaped into a valve to prevent fluid from leaking onto the patient's abdomen. The patient then empties the pouch several times daily by inserting a tube (catheter) through the valve. The Kock technique is sometimes called a continent ileostomy because the fluid is contained inside the abdomen. It is successful in 70%-90% of cases. Patients with chronic ulcerative colitis usually have all of the diseased tissue removed during the Kock method. The primary benefit of the Kock approach compared with the Brooke method is that discharge is captured without an external appliance. Unfortunately, the complication rate following the Kock technique is much higher than with the Brooke method. Patients receiving both techniques have problems with perineal wound healing in about one-third of cases.

Jejunostomy

A jejunostomy is similar to an ileostomy except that the stoma is placed in the second section of the small intestine rather than the third. Jejunostomies are performed less frequently than ileostomies and are almost always temporary procedures.

Tube enterostomies

Tube enterostomies are procedures in which the surgeon makes a stoma into either the stomach itself or the jejunum in order to insert a tube for liquid nutrients. Tube enterostomies are performed in patients who need tube feeding for longer than six weeks, or who have had recent mouth or nose surgery. Jejunostomies require a continuous infusion of nutrients whereas tube feeding through the stomach can be given in large single feedings (boluses). As long as the patient's intestinal tract can function, tube feedings are considered preferable to intravenous feeding because it is safer and helps keep the patient's digestive tract functioning.

Preparation

Preoperative preparation includes both patient education and physical preparation.

Patient education

If the patient requires a permanent ileostomy, the doctor will explain what will happen during the procedure and why it is necessary. Most patients are willing to accept an ostomy as an alternative to the chronic pain and diarrhea of ulcerative colitis or the risk of cancer from other intestinal disorders. The patient also can meet with an enterostomal therapist (ET) or a member of the United Ostomy Association, which is a support group for people with ostomies.

Medical preparation

The patient is prepared for surgery with an evaluation of his or her nutritional status, possible need for blood transfusions, and antibiotics if necessary. If the patient does not have an intestinal obstruction or severe inflammation, he or she may be given a large quantity of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution to cleanse the intestines before surgery.

Aftercare

Aftercare of an enterostomy is both psychological and medical.

Patient education

Ileostomy patients must learn to watch their fluid and salt intake. They are at greater risk of becoming dehydrated in hot weather, from exercise, or from diarrhea. In some cases they may need extra bananas or orange juice in the diet to keep up the level of potassium in the blood. Poorly digested foods, such as lightly cooked vegetables, certain types of fruit, nuts, and corn can lead to stomal obstruction if the food is not thoroughly chewed.

Patient education includes social concerns as well as physical self care. Many ileostomy patients are worried about the effects of the operation on their close relationships and employment. If the patient has not seen an ET before the operation, the aftercare period is a good time to find out about self-help and support groups. The ET can also evaluate the patient's emotional reactions to the ostomy.

In some instances the appliance is poorly fitted. This can lead to problems with the skin near the stoma. Certain foods, such as onions and beans, can produce bad odors in the ileostomy bag. The odor primarily develops from bacteria working on these digested foods. Frequent bag emptying and the addition of chlorine or sodium benzoate tablets to the bag can significantly reduce odor.

Medical aftercare

If the enterostomy is temporary, aftercare consists of the usual monitoring of surgical wounds for infection or bleeding. If it is a permanent ileostomy, aftercare includes teaching the patient to use the appliance or empty the Kock pouch, to keep the stoma clean, and to readjust bathroom habits. Recovery takes a significant amount of time because major surgery is a shock to the system and the intestines take several days to resume normal functioning. The patient's fluid intake and output will be checked frequently to minimize the risk of dehydration.

Complications

Enterostomies are not considered high-risk operations by themselves. Possible complications include:

  • Skin irritation caused by leakage of digestive fluids onto the skin around the stoma is the most common complication.
  • Diarrhea, both severe and chronic, needs to be brought to the attention of the physician.
  • Gallstones or stones in the urinary tract may develop.
  • Inflammation of the ileum can occur.
  • Odors from an ileostomy can often be prevented by a change in diet.
  • Intestinal obstruction may develop.
  • Prolapse can occur in which a section of the bowel pushes out of the body.
  • Leakage from the ileostomy pouch can occur if the stoma is not at least 2 inches (5 cm) above the level of the skin.
  • Variceal bleeding—bleeding from blood vessels around the stoma—can occur in patients with portal hypertension and other conditions.
  • Ileal abscess and fistula can occur, in which the ileum becomes punctured by sutures, recurrent disease, or the effects of a poorly fitted appliance.

Results

Normal results include recovery from the surgery with few or no complications. About 95% of people with ostomies recover completely, are able to return to work, and consider themselves to be in good health. Many ileostomy patients enjoy being able to eat a full range of foods rather than living on a restricted diet. Some patients, however, need to be referred to psychotherapists to deal with depression or other emotional problems after the operation.

Health care team roles

A variety of allied health personnel will be involved in the care of individuals who require a enterostomy. A surgeon will perform the actual procedure. A nurse will likely be involved in aftercare instructions, and an important member of the allied health care team is the ET. The ET is generally a registered nurse who has received specialized training in the area of enterostomy and is typically certified in the field. The ET generally performs the following activities:

  • presurgical counseling and education of the patient and family
  • care of the stoma immediately following the operation
  • training of the patient in the proper use of the appliance and overall long-term self-care
  • proper fitting of the appliance
  • educating the patient on the daily management of the stoma
  • advising the patient on how to cope with skin complications and odor problems
  • identifying stomal problems associated with the surgery
  • supporting the patient emotionally, physically, and morally
  • providing information about the national organization for those who have received an ostomy—the United Ostomy Association

Nutritional therapists may also consult the patient about various nutritional factors and how they might affect the patient who has undergone an enterostomy. In particular, this information will include how various foods lead to diarrhea, or bad odors in the bag. Wound care nursing specialists also may be called in when wound healing is not progressing at an appropriate rate.

KEY TERMS

Crohn's disease— A disease of the intestines that causes inflammation leading to scarring, thickening of the walls of the intestine, and eventual obstruction.

Duodenum— The first of the three segments of the small intestine. The duodenum connects the stomach and the jejunum.

Enteral nutrition— A technique for feeding patients with liquid formulas conveyed directly into the stomach or jejunum through tubes.

Enterostomal therapist (ET)— A specialized counselor, usually a registered nurse, who provides ostomy patients with education and counseling before the operation. After surgery the ET helps the patient learn to take care of the stoma and appliance, and offers long-term emotional support.

Familial polyposis— A disease that runs in families in which lumps of tissue (polyps) form inside the colon. Familial polyposis may develop into cancer.

Ileum— The third segment of the small intestine, connecting the jejunum and the large intestine.

Jejunum— The second of the three segments of the small intestine, connecting the duodenum and the ileum.

Kock pouch— A type of ileostomy in which the surgeon forms an artificial rectum from a section of the ileum. A Kock pouch is sometimes called a continent ileostomy because it is drained with a tube.

Ostomy— A common term for all types of enterostomies.

Stoma— The surgically constructed mouth or passage between the intestine and the outside of the patient's body.

Tube enterostomy— An enterostomy performed to allow the insertion of a feeding tube into the jejunum or stomach.

Ulcerative colitis A disease of the colon characterized by inflammation of the mucous lining, ulcerated areas of tissue, and bloody diarrhea.

Resources

BOOKS

Baron, Robert B. "Nutrition." In Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2001. Ed. Lawrence M. Tierney, Jr., et al. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 2001.

Goldman, Lee, and J. Claude Bennett. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999.

"Large Intestine." In Current Surgical Diagnosis & Treatment. Ed. Lawrence W. Way. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1994.

ORGANIZATIONS

United Ostomy Association (UOA). 19772 MacArthur Blvd., Ste 200, Irvine, CA 92612-2405. (800) 826-0826. 〈http://www.uoa.org〉.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/enterostomy-0

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. . Retrieved September 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/enterostomy-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Enterostomy

Enterostomy

Definition

An enterostomy is a procedure in which the surgeon makes a passage into the patient's small intestine through an incision in the abdomen, leaving an opening to allow for drainage or to insert a feeding tube. The opening is called a stoma from the Greek word meaning mouth. Enterostomies may be either temporary or permanent. They are classified according to the part of the intestine that is used to create the stoma. If the ileum, which is the lowest of the three sections of the small intestine, is used to make the stoma, the operation is called an ileostomy. If the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine, is used, the operation is called a jejunostomy. Some people use the word "ostomy" as a word that covers all types of enterostomies.

Purpose

Enterostomies are performed to create a new opening for the passage of fecal matter when normal intestinal functioning is interrupted or when diseases of the intestines cannot be treated by medications or less radical surgery. Some situations that may require enterostomies include:

  • Healing of inflamed bowel segments. Enterostomies performed for this reason are usually temporary.
  • Emergency treatment of gunshot or other penetrating wounds of the abdomen. An enterostomy may be required to prevent the contents of the intestine from causing a serious inflammation of the inside of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis). These enterostomies are also usually temporary.
  • Placement of a tube for enteral feeding. Enteral feeding is a method for conveying nutritional solutions directly into the stomach or jejunum through a tube. Tube enterostomies may be long-term, but are not permanent.
  • Removal of diseased sections of the intestines. Ileostomies performed for this reason are permanent. The most common disorders requiring permanent ileostomy are Crohn's disease , familial polyposis, and ulcerative colitis. Familial polyposis and ulcerative colitis are serious health risks because they can develop into cancer .
  • Treatment of advanced cancer or other causes of intestinal obstruction.

Precautions

Enterostomies are usually performed only as emergency treatments for traumatic injuries in the abdomen or as final measures for serious disorders of the intestines. Most patients do not refuse the procedure once the need for it is explained. A small minority, however, refuse enterostomies because of strong psychological reactions to personal disfigurement and the need to relearn bowel habits.

Description

Ileostomy

Ileostomies represent about 25% of enterostomies. They are performed after the surgeon removes a diseased colon and sometimes the rectum as well. The most common ileostomy is called a Brooke ileostomy after the English surgeon who developed it. In a Brooke ileostomy, the surgeon makes the stoma in the lower right section of the abdomen. The ileum is pulled through an opening (incision) in the muscle layer. The surgeon then turns the cut end of the intestine inside out and sews it to the edges of the hole. He or she then positions an appliance for collecting the fecal material. The appliance consists of a plastic bag that fits over the stoma and lies flat against the abdomen. The patient is taught to drain the bag from time to time during the day. The bag needs to be emptied frequently because the digested food contains large amounts of water. Shortly after the operation, the ileostomy produces one to two quarts of fluid per day. However, after a month or two of adjustment, the volume decreases to one or two pints per day. Nearly 30% of patients receiving the Brooke ileostomy for inflammatory bowel disease develop at least a limited infection . Another 20%–25% require at least a minor surgical revision.

KOCK POUCH (CONTINENT ILEOSTOMY). The Kock pouch is a variation of the basic ileostomy and is named for its Swedish inventor. In the Kock technique the surgeon forms a pouch inside the abdominal cavity behind the stoma to collect fecal material. The stoma is shaped into a valve to prevent fluid from leaking onto the patient's abdomen. The patient then empties the pouch several times daily by inserting a tube (catheter) through the valve. The Kock technique is sometimes called a continent ileostomy because the fluid is contained inside the abdomen. It is successful in 70%–90% of cases. Patients with chronic ulcerative colitis usually have all of the diseased tissue removed during the Kock method. The primary benefit of the Kock approach compared with the Brooke method is that discharge is captured without an external appliance. Unfortunately, the complication rate following the Kock technique is much higher than with the Brooke method. Patients receiving both techniques have problems with perineal wound healing in about one-third of cases.

Jejunostomy

A jejunostomy is similar to an ileostomy except that the stoma is placed in the second section of the small intestine rather than the third. Jejunostomies are performed less frequently than ileostomies and are almost always temporary procedures.

Tube enterostomies

Tube enterostomies are procedures in which the surgeon makes a stoma into either the stomach itself or the jejunum in order to insert a tube for liquid nutrients. Tube enterostomies are performed in patients who need tube feeding for longer than six weeks, or who have had recent mouth or nose surgery. Jejunostomies require a continuous infusion of nutrients whereas tube feeding through the stomach can be given in large single feedings (boluses). As long as the patient's intestinal tract can function, tube feedings are considered preferable to intravenous feeding because it is safer and helps keep the patient's digestive tract functioning.

Preparation

Preoperative preparation includes both patient education and physical preparation.

Patient education

If the patient requires a permanent ileostomy, the doctor will explain what will happen during the procedure and why it is necessary. Most patients are willing to accept an ostomy as an alternative to the chronic pain and diarrhea of ulcerative colitis or the risk of cancer from other intestinal disorders. The patient also can meet with an enterostomal therapist (ET) or a member of the United Ostomy Association, which is a support group for people with ostomies.

Medical preparation

The patient is prepared for surgery with an evaluation of his or her nutritional status, possible need for blood transfusions, and antibiotics if necessary. If the patient does not have an intestinal obstruction or severe inflammation, he or she may be given a large quantity of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution to cleanse the intestines before surgery.

Aftercare

Aftercare of an enterostomy is both psychological and medical.

Patient education

Ileostomy patients must learn to watch their fluid and salt intake. They are at greater risk of becoming dehydrated in hot weather, from exercise , or from diarrhea. In some cases they may need extra bananas or orange juice in the diet to keep up the level of potassium in the blood. Poorly digested foods, such as lightly cooked vegetables, certain types of fruit, nuts, and corn can lead to stromal obstruction if the food is not thoroughly chewed.

Patient education includes social concerns as well as physical self care. Many ileostomy patients are worried about the effects of the operation on their close relationships and employment. If the patient has not seen an ET before the operation, the aftercare period is a good time to find out about self-help and support groups. The ET can also evaluate the patient's emotional reactions to the ostomy.

In some instances the appliance is poorly fitted. This can lead to problems with the skin near the stoma. Certain foods, such as onions and beans, can produce bad odors in the ileostomy bag. The odor primarily develops from bacteria working on these digested foods. Frequent bag emptying and the addition of chlorine or sodium benzoate tablets to the bag can significantly reduce odor.

Medical aftercare

If the enterostomy is temporary, aftercare consists of the usual monitoring of surgical wounds for infection or bleeding. If it is a permanent ileostomy, aftercare includes teaching the patient to use the appliance or empty the Kock pouch, to keep the stoma clean, and to readjust bathroom habits. Recovery takes a significant amount of time because major surgery is a shock to the system and the intestines take several days to resume normal functioning. The patient's fluid intake and output will be checked frequently to minimize the risk of dehydration .

Complications

Enterostomies are not considered high-risk operations by themselves. Possible complications include:

  • Skin irritation caused by leakage of digestive fluids onto the skin around the stoma is the most common complication.
  • Diarrhea, both severe and chronic, needs to be brought to the attention of the physician.
  • Gallstones or stones in the urinary tract may develop.
  • Inflammation of the ileum can occur.
  • Odors from an ileostomy can often be prevented by a change in diet.
  • Intestinal obstruction may develop.
  • Prolapse can occur in which a section of the bowel pushes out of the body.
  • Leakage from the ileostomy pouch can occur if the stoma is not at least 2 inches above the level of the skin.
  • Variceal bleeding—bleeding from blood vessels around the stoma—can occur in patients with portal hypertension and other conditions.

KEY TERMS


Crohn's disease —A disease of the intestines that causes inflammation leading to scarring, thickening of the walls of the intestine, and eventual obstruction.

Duodenum —The first of the three segments of the small intestine. The duodenum connects the stomach and the jejunum.

Enteral nutrition —A technique for feeding patients with liquid formulas conveyed directly into the stomach or jejunum through tubes.

Enterostomal therapist (ET) —A specialized counselor, usually a registered nurse, who provides ostomy patients with education and counseling before the operation. After surgery the ET helps the patient learn to take care of the stoma and appliance, and offers long-term emotional support.

Familial polyposis —A disease that runs in families in which lumps of tissue (polyps) form inside the colon. Familial polyposis may develop into cancer.

Ileum —The third segment of the small intestine, connecting the jejunum and the large intestine.

Jejunum —The second of the three segments of the small intestine, connecting the duodenum and the ileum.

Kock pouch —A type of ileostomy in which the surgeon forms an artificial rectum from a section of the ileum. A Kock pouch is sometimes called a continent ileostomy because it is drained with a tube.

Ostomy —A common term for all types of enterostomies.

Stoma —The surgically constructed mouth or passage between the intestine and the outside of the patient's body.

Tube enterostomy —An enterostomy performed to allow the insertion of a feeding tube into the jejunum or stomach.

Ulcerative colitis —A disease of the colon characterized by inflammation of the mucous lining, ulcerated areas of tissue, and bloody diarrhea.


  • Ileal abscess and fistula can occur, in which the ileum becomes punctured by sutures, recurrent disease, or the effects of a poorly-fitted appliance.

Results

Normal results include recovery from the surgery with few or no complications. About 95% of people with ostomies recover completely, are able to return to work, and consider themselves to be in good health. Many ileostomy patients enjoy being able to eat a full range of foods rather than living on a restricted diet. Some patients, however, need to be referred to psychotherapists to deal with depression or other emotional problems after the operation.

Health care team roles

A variety of allied health personnel will be involved in the care of individuals who require a enterostomy. A surgeon will perform the actual procedure. A nurse will likely be involved in aftercare instructions, and an important member of the allied health care team is the ET. The ET is generally a registered nurse who has received specialized training in the area of enterostomy and is typically certified in the field. The ET generally performs the following activities:

  • presurgical counseling and education of the patient and family
  • care of the stoma immediately following the operation
  • training of the patient in the proper use of the appliance and overall long-term self-care
  • proper fitting of the appliance
  • educating the patient on the daily management of the stoma
  • advising the patient on how to cope with skin complications and odor problems
  • identifying stomal problems associated with the surgery
  • supporting the patient emotionally, physically, and morally
  • providing information about the national organization for those who have received an ostomy—the United Ostomy Association

Nutritional therapists may also consult the patient about various nutritional factors and how they might affect the patient who has undergone an enterostomy. In particular, this information will include how various foods lead to diarrhea, or bad odors in the bag. Wound care nursing specialists also may be called in when wound healing is not progressing at an appropriate rate.

Resources

BOOKS

Baron, Robert B. "Nutrition." In Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2001. Ed. Lawrence M. Tierney, Jr., et al. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 2001.

Goldman, Lee, and J. Claude Bennett. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999.

"Large Intestine." In Current Surgical Diagnosis & Treatment. Ed. Lawrence W. Way. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1994.

ORGANIZATIONS

United Ostomy Association (UOA). 19772 MacArthur Blvd., Ste 200, Irvine, CA 92612-2405. (800) 826-0826. <http://www.uoa.org>.

Mark A. Mitchell

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/enterostomy-1

"Enterostomy." Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. . Retrieved September 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/enterostomy-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.