Skip to main content
Select Source:

burn

burn1 / bərn/ • v. (past and past part. burned or chiefly Brit. burnt / bərnt/ ) 1. [intr.] (of a fire) flame or glow while consuming a material such as coal or wood: a fire burned and crackled cheerfully in the grate. ∎  (of a candle or other source of light) be alight: a light was burning in the hall. ∎  be or cause to be destroyed by fire: he watched his restaurant burn to the ground ∎  [tr.] damage or injure by heat or fire: I burned myself on the stove. 2. [intr.] (of a person, the skin, or a part of the body) become red and painful through exposure to the sun: my skin tans easily but sometimes burns. ∎  feel or cause to feel sore, hot, or inflamed, typically as a result of illness or injury. ∎  (of a person's face) feel hot and flushed from an intense emotion such as shame or indignation: her face burned with the humiliation. ∎  (be burning with) be possessed by (a desire or an emotion): Martha was burning with curiosity. 3. [tr.] use (a type of fuel) as a source of heat or energy: a diesel engine converted to burn natural gas. ∎  [tr.] (of a person) convert (calories) to energy: the speed at which your body burns calories. 4. [tr.] produce (a compact disc or DVD) by copying from an original or master copy.5. [intr.] inf. drive very fast: he burned past us like a maniac. • n. 1. an injury caused by exposure to heat or flame: he was treated in the hospital for burns to his hands. ∎  a mark left on something as a result of being burned: the carpet was covered with cigarette burns. ∎  a feeling of heat and discomfort on the skin caused by friction, typically by a rope or razor: a smooth shave without razor burn. ∎  a sensation of heat experienced on swallowing spicy food, hot liquid, or strong alcoholic drink: Kate felt the burn as the curry hit her throat. 2. consumption of a type of fuel as an energy source: natural gas produces the cleanest burn of the lot. ∎  a firing of a rocket engine in flight. 3. an act of clearing vegetation by burning, intentionally or by accident. ∎  an area of land cleared in this way. 4. a hot, painful sensation in the muscles experienced as a result of sustained vigorous exercise: work up a burn. PHRASES: burn one's bridges do something that makes it impossible to return to an earlier state. burn the candle at both ends go to bed late and get up early, esp. to get work done. burn the midnight oil read, study, or work late into the night. money burns a hole in someone's pocket someone has a strong urge to spend money as soon as they receive it. slow burn inf. a state of slowly mounting anger or annoyance.PHRASAL VERBS: burn something in/into brand or imprint by burning: designs are burned into the skin fig. a childhood incident that was burned into her memory. ∎  Photog. expose one area of a print more than the rest: the sky and bottom of the picture needed substantial burning in. burn out be completely consumed and thus no longer aflame: the candle in the saucer had burned out. ∎  cease to function as a result of excessive heat or friction: the clutch had burned out. burn (oneself) out ruin one's health or become completely exhausted through overwork. burn up 1. (of a fire) produce brighter and stronger flames. 2. (of an object entering the earth's atmosphere) be destroyed by heat. burn someone up inf. make someone angry: his thoughtless remarks really burn me up. burn something up ∎ use up the calories or energy provided by food, rather than converting these to fat: in the typical Western diet, all the energy in protein is burned up daily. burn2 • n. chiefly Scot. & N. Engl. a small stream; a brook.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-1

"burn." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Burn

Burn

A burn is damage to an area of the body caused by excessive heat, chemicals, electricity, or the Sun. Burns caused by heat can be the result of contact with fire, scalding water, or hot surfaces. Contact with high-voltage power lines can result in electrical burns. A burn can occur on the inside or outside of the body and can range from minor to life threatening.

The severity of a burn is determined by how deeply the injury has penetrated the skin and underlying tissue. If the outer and inner layers of the skin are damaged, a burn is termed partial thickness. If the underlying

tissue is also damaged, the burn is referred to as full thickness. However, the depth of a burn is more commonly classified by a system of degrees. The size of a burn is also considered in determining its severity. According to the percentage of the body surface affected, burns are classified as minor, moderate, and major.

The skin

The skin is the largest organ of the body. It covers the outer surface and prevents bacteria, dirt, and other foreign materials from entering the body and causing infection. The skin also aids in regulating body temperature through the process of sweating. Sweat regulates the amount of heat lost from the surface of the body, thus maintaining an even body temperature. In addition, the skin protects against the loss of body fluids that lie beneath it and bathe the tissues.

First-degree burn

A first-degree burn is restricted to the outer layer of the skin, or epidermis, causing redness and pain. A mild sunburn or an injury caused by briefly touching a hot pan are examples of first-degree burns.

Words to Know

Dermis: The layer of skin lying beneath the outer skin.

Epidermis: The outer layer of the skin.

Skin graft: The transfer of skin or skin cells from an uninjured area of the body to a burned area in order to replace damaged skin and promote growth of new skin. A skin graft may be "harvested" from the actual burn victim or may be acquired from a donor.

Second-degree burn

A second-degree burn is marked by the appearance of blisters on the skin. The burn damage extends through the epidermis to the underlying inner layer, or dermis. The formation of blisters indicates the loss of fluid from cells, and the skin is mildly to moderately swollen and painful. Second-degree burns can be caused by exposure of the skin to sunlight or by contact with a hot object or scalding water.

Third-degree burn

A third-degree burn causes damage to the epidermis, dermis, and the underlying tissue. There are no blisters, but blood vessels in which blood clots have formed are noticeable.

Fourth-degree burn

A fourth-degree burn is one that penetrates the tissue and extends to the underlying muscle and bone. It is the most serious type of burn and is often fatal. Such a burn can result in permanent disfigurement and loss of function of the burned area. Treatment includes replacing lost body fluids, removing destroyed tissue and charred skin, preventing infection, and grafting skin to replace the burned skin. Physical therapy is usually necessary to restore the function of the affected area. A fourth-degree burn results most often from the direct exposure of skin to open flame.

Chemical burns

Chemical burns can occur from ingesting chemicals or having them come in contact with the skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Some 25,000 industrial chemicals can produce chemical burns. Certain household chemicals, such as drain openers, are also responsible for serious burns.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Burn." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Burn." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn-1

"Burn." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burn, injury resulting from exposure to heat, electricity, radiation, or caustic chemicals. Three degrees of burn are commonly recognized. In first-degree burns the outer layer of skin, called epidermis, becomes red, sensitive to the touch, and often swollen. Medical attention is not required but application of an ointment may relieve the pain. Second-degree burns are characterized by the variable destruction of epidermis and the formation of blisters; nerve endings may be exposed. The more serious cases should be seen by a physician and care should be taken to avoid infection. Local therapy includes application of a chemical such as silver nitrate to produce a soft crust, reduce the threat of infection, and relieve the pain. Third-degree burns involve destruction of the entire thickness of skin and the underlying connective tissue. In the more severe cases underlying bones are also charred. The surface area involved is more significant than the depth of the burn. Shock must be prevented or counteracted; blood transfusion may be required to replace lost body fluids. Invasion of various bacteria must be prevented or cured by administering antibiotics and other drugs. Morphine may be employed to ease pain. Long-term treatment may include transplantation of natural or artificial skin grafts.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn

"burn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burn Injury caused by exposure to flames, scalding liquids, caustic chemicals, acids, electric current, or ionizing radiation. Its severity depends on the extent of skin loss and the depth of tissue damage. A superficial burn, involving only the epidermis, causes redness, swelling and pain; it heals within a few days. A partial thickness burn (epidermis and dermis) causes intense pain, with mottling and blistering of the skin; it takes a couple of weeks to heal. In a full thickness burn, involving both the skin and the underlying flesh, there is charring, and the damaged flesh looks dry and leathery; there is no pain because the nerve endings have been destroyed. Such a burn, serious in itself, is associated with life-threatening complications, including dehydration and infection. Treatment includes fluid replacement and antibiotics; skin grafting may be necessary.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn

"burn." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burn burn one's boats destroy one's means of retreat, do something which makes it impossible to return to an earlier state; the term is recorded (in figurative use) from the late 19th century.
burn the candle at both ends draw on one's resources from two directions; especially, overtax one's strength by going to bed late and getting up early. The expression is recorded in English from the mid 18th century, but is found earlier in French.
burn the midnight oil read or work late into the night, supposedly by lamplight; a related image is found in the expression smell of Chancery.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

"burn." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burn (bern) n. tissue damage caused by such agents as heat, cold, chemicals, electricity, ultraviolet light, or nuclear radiation. Burns cause swelling and blistering; loss of plasma from damaged blood vessels may lead to severe shock. There is also a risk of bacterial infection. first-degree b. a burn affecting only the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin. second-degree b. a burn in which both the epidermis and the underlying dermis are damaged. third-degree b. a burn that involves damage or destruction of the skin to its full depth and damage to the tissues beneath.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

"burn." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burn2
A. be on fire.

B. consume with fire. In meaning repr. two OE. verbs:
i. an intr. str. vb. birnan, beornan;

ii. a trans. wk. vb. bærnan. Both verbs contain metathesized forms of Gmc. *bren- *bran; OE. birnan, var. of brinnan = OS., OHG., Goth. brinnan; OE. bærnan = OS., OHG. brennan (G. brennen), ON. brenna, Goth. brannjan.

Hence burn sb. XVI.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-3

"burn." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-3

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burn1 stream, brook. OE. burna wk. m., burne wk. fem., burn str. fem., corr. to MLG. born(e), MDu. borne, Du., G. born, repr. a metathetic form of Gmc. *brunnan-, -az, in OS., OHG. brunno (Du. bron, G. brunnen), ON. brunnr, Goth. brunna; ult. orig. unkn.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-2

"burn." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-2

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burn To write information to a compact disk or DVD.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

"burn." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Burn

Burn Trade name for an energy drink.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Burn." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Burn." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

"Burn." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

burn

burnadjourn, astern, Berne, burn, churn, concern, discern, earn, fern, fohn, kern, learn, Lucerne, quern, Sauternes, spurn, stern, Sterne, tern, terne, Traherne, turn, urn, Verne, yearn •Bayern • Blackburn • heartburn •Hepburn • Raeburn • Swinburne •Gisborne, Lisburn •sideburn • sunburn • Bannockburn •lady-fern • Vättern • extern •cittern, gittern •Comintern • taciturn •nocturn, nocturne •U-turn • upturn

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"burn." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"burn." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-0

"burn." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/burn-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Burn

Burn

Resources

A burn is damage to the skin caused by extreme heat, extreme cold, chemicals, electricity, or radiant energy (i.e., ultraviolet rays from the sun or an artificial source, and x rays). Depending on the type of and severity of the burn, skin may be only superficially damaged, or damage may extend deep within the layers of the skin.

The degree of damage of a burn can be classified in two ways. The first, and more traditional way, uses the terms first degree, second degree, and third-degree burns. The second means of classification refers to partial thickness and full thickness burns.

A first-degree burn is one that affects only the uppermost layer of the skin, the epidermis. This type of burn is the most common. Touching a hot stove element or scalding the skin with steam are examples of first-degree burns. Despite the pain associated with them, the first-degree burn is the least damaging. Within a few days healing is complete. A first-degree burn is also a partial burn.

A second-degree burn extends through the epidermis to the underlying layer of skin, the dermis. Redness and blistering of the skin are characteristics of a second-degree burn. Healing takes longer than with a first-degree burn and some scarring of the healed area might result. A second-degree burn is also a partial burn.

A third-degree burn is the most serious type. Here, skin damage extends all the way through the

KEY TERMS

Dermis The internal layer of skin lying below the epidermis. It contains the sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, and provides replacement cells for those that are shed from the outer layer.

Epidermis The outer layer of the skin consisting of dead cells. It is the primary protective barrier against sunlight, chemicals, and other possible harmful agents. The epidermal cells are constantly being shed and replenished.

Graft The attachment of skin to an injured area. The new skin, natural or artificial, will prevent the loss of fluids and provide the means for a new, intact layer of skin to form.

Hydration Restoring fluids to the body. Deep and extensive burns allow the escape of fluids needed for proper body functions.

epidermal and dermal layers. These are full-thickness burns. The patient may not feel as much pain with these burns, as the nerve endings in the burned area have been des-troyed. Skin grafts are usually necessary to repair the damage of third-degree burns, and scarring is routine.

Chemical burns differ from radiant burns in that the skin has no protective mechanism to prevent them. With radiation, the melanin cells spread melanin in the skin to block ultraviolet light from penetrating. With chemical burns no such protective measure exists.

Chemical burns can occur from contact with acids, strong alkali (such as lye), or other agents. Some 25,000 industrial chemicals (of about 300,000 in use) can produce chemical burns, either internal or external.

Eyes are also vulnerable to chemical burns. Ideally workers using dangerous materials wear goggles and other protective gear, but the home craftsmen may not. Alkalis burn into the eyes rapidly and deeply. Acids burn rapidly, but usually are neutralized by tears before they burn deeply. Initially, chemical burns may appear to be mild, but during the following day or so the injured tissue may slough off and the extent of the injury will be revealed.

Chemical burns may occur from unexpected sources. Dry cement, for example, because of its lime content, is capable of causing burns if skin is exposed to it for hours. Gasoline can penetrate skin and cause a burn after several hours of exposure as well. Never

use fuel to clean the hands or use it in any other way that would result in long-term exposure.

Surprisingly, air bags in automobiles have burned some accident victims. The bags inflate explosively upon impact to cushion the cars occupants. However, the gas that inflates the bag is hot when it is released from the cylinder. Several burns from contact with inflating air bags have been reported.

Household chemicals can be as dangerous as industrial ones. Drain openers, for example, are based on lye with other additives and can cause serious burns. Lawn fertilizer should never be handled with bare hands, and any that gets on the skin should be rinsed off immediately. Chemicals present a ready source for both internal and external burns. It is important that these materials be stored out of reach of children and that they be used with great care. Protective clothing, gloves, and goggles should be worn whenever working with such chemicals. Spills and splashes should be cleaned up immediately and any chemical that contacts the skin should be rinsed off quickly. Excess chemicals or empty containers should be disposed of with care and in accordance with existing regulations. Empty containers should not be saved for reuse.

See also Physiology.

Resources

BOOKS

Munster, A. M., and S. Burns. A Family Guide to Medical and Emotional Recovery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Wardrope, J., and J. A. Edhouse. The Management of Wounds and Burns (Oxford Handbooks in Emergency Medicine). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Wolf, S. E., and D. N. Herdon. Burn Care. Georgetown, TX: Landes Bioscience, 1999.

BOOKS

MedicineNet, Inc. Burns <http://www.medicinenet.com/burns/article.htm> (accessed November 6, 2006).

Merck. Burns <http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec24/ch289/ch289a.html> (accessed November 6, 2006).

Brian Hoyle

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Burn." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Burn." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn

"Burn." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Burn

Burn

A burn is damage to the skin. Depending on the type of and severity of the burn, skin may be only superficially damaged, or damage may extend deep within the layers of the skin.

Burns can be caused by extreme heat , extreme cold, chemicals, electricity , or radiant energy (i.e., ultraviolet rays from the sun or an artificial source, and x rays ).

The degree of damage of a burn can be classified in two ways. The first, and more traditional way, uses the terms first degree, second degree, and third-degree burns. The second means of classification refers to partial thickness and full thickness burns.

A first-degree burn is one that affects only the uppermost layer of the skin, which is called the epidermis. This type of burn is the most common. Touching a hot stove element or scalding of skin by steam are examples of first-degree burns. Despite the pain associated with these burns, the first-degree burn is the least damaging. Within a few days healing is complete. A first degree burn is also a partial burn.

A second-degree burn extends through the epidermis to the underlying layer of skin, which is called the dermis. Redness and blistering of the skin are characteristics of a second-degree burn. Healing takes longer than with a first-degree burn and some scarring of the healed area might result. A second degree burn is also a partial burn.

A third-degree burn is the most serious type of burn. Here, skin damage extends all the way through the epidermal and dermal layers. These are full thickness burns. The patient may not feel as much pain with these burns, as the nerve endings in the burned area have been destroyed. Skin grafts are usually necessary to repair the damage of third-degree burns, and scarring is routine.

Chemical burns differ from radiant burns in that the skin has no protective mechanism to prevent them. With radiation , the melanin cells spread melanin in the skin to block ultraviolet light from penetrating. With chemical burns no such protective measure exists.

Chemical burns can occur with the application of acids, strong alkali (such as lye), or other agents. Some 25,000 industrial chemicals (of about 300,000 in use) can produce chemical burns, either internal or external.

Eyes are also vulnerable to chemical burns. Ideally the worker who is using dangerous materials wears goggles and other protective gear, but the home craftsman may not. Alkalis burn into the eyes rapidly and deeply. Acids burn rapidly, but usually are neutralized by the tears before they burn deeply. Initially, chemical burns may appear to be mild, but during the following day or so the injured tissue may slough off and the extent of the injury will be revealed.

Chemical burns may occur from unexpected sources. Dry cement, for example, because of its lime content, is capable of causing burns if one's skin is exposed to it for hours. Gasoline can penetrate skin and cause a burn after several hours of exposure as well. Never use fuel to clean the hands or use it in any other way that would result in long-term exposure.

Surprisingly, air bags in automobiles have burned some accident victims. The bags inflate explosively upon impact to cushion the car's occupants. However, the gas that inflates the bag is hot when it is released from the cylinder. Several burns from contact with inflating air bags have been reported.

Household chemicals can be as dangerous as industrial ones. Drain openers, for example, are based on lye with other additives and can be responsible for serious burns. Lawn fertilizer should never be handled with bare hands, and any that gets on the skin should be rinsed off immediately. Chemicals present a ready source for both internal and external burns. It is important that these materials be stored out of reach of young people and that they be used with great care. Protective clothing, gloves, and goggles should be worn whenever working with such chemicals. Spills and splashes should be cleaned up immediately and any chemical that contacts the skin should be rinsed off quickly. Excess chemicals or empty containers should be disposed of with care and in accordance with existing regulations. Empty containers should not be saved for reuse.

See also Physiology.


Resources

books

Munster, A. M., and S. Burns. A Family Guide to Medical andEmotional Recovery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Wardrope, J., and J. A. Edhouse. The Management of Wounds and Burns (Oxford Handbooks in Emergency Medicine). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Wolf, S. E., and D. N. Herdon. Burn Care. Georgetown, TX: Landes Bioscience, 1999.


Brian Hoyle

KEY TERMS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dermis

—The internal layer of skin lying below the epidermis. It contains the sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, and provides replacement cells for those that are shed from the outer layer.

Epidermis

—The outer layer of the skin consisting of dead cells. It is the primary protective barrier against sunlight, chemicals, and other possible harmful agents. The epidermal cells are constantly being shed and replenished.

Graft

—The attachment of skin to an injured area. The new skin, natural or artificial, will prevent the loss of fluids and provide the means for a new, intact layer of skin to form.

Hydration

—Restoring fluids to the body. Deep and extensive burns allow the escape of fluids needed for proper body functions.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Burn." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Burn." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn-0

"Burn." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burn-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.