Seljuk or Saljuk archictecture. Taking its name from a Turkish Islamic dynasty which, with its branches, ruled in Iran, Iraq, and Syria from 1038 to 1194 and in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307, it consists largely of madrasas, caravanserais, and mausolea, usually executed in high-quality masonry or brickwork embellished with glazed tiles. It evolved a type of mosque with four iwans facing the court, with a domed prayer-hall behind the prayeriwan (e.g. Great Mosque, Isfahan (C11) ). Mausolea comprise the most distinctive type of Seljuk architecture: they are towers, often circular or star-shaped on plan (e.g. the cone-capped Gunbad i Qabus, Gurgan (1006–7)) with elaborate inscriptions and ornament. Minarets were often very elaborate, created perhaps more as monuments than as mere elevated towers for calls to prayer: an example is the Ghurid minaret, Jam (1191–8). Other mausolea are not towers, but are domed, often surfaced externally with brilliantly coloured glazed tiles: a good example is the tomb of Sultan Sanjar, Merv (1157). Seljuk architecture was to influence later Islamic architecture, especially in Iran and Turkey.
Cruickshank (ed.) (1996)
Cruickshank (ed.) (1996)
Seljuk Nomadic tribesmen from central Asia who adopted Islam in the 7th century, and founded the Baghdad sultanate in 1055. Their empire included Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia. Under Alp Arslan, they defeated the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071, which led to their occupation of Anatolia. They revived Sunni administration and religious institutions, checking the spread of Shi'ite Islam and laying the organizational basis for the future Ottoman administration. In the early 12th century, the Seljuk Empire began to disintegrate, and the Mongols conquered the Seljuk states in the 13th century.
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