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Court of Claims

COURT OF CLAIMS

A state judicial tribunal established as the forum in which to bring certain types of lawsuits against the state or its political subdivisions, such as a county. The former designation given to a federal tribunal created in 1855 by Congress with original jurisdiction—initial authority—to decide an action brought against the United States that is based upon the Constitution, federal law, any regulation of the executive department, or any express or implied contracts with the federal government.

Such courts are created by statute or constitution and can entertain only actions specified by law, such as those involving violations of provisions of the state constitution or law or based upon breach of government contracts.

The Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982 (28 U.S.C.A. § 1 et seq.) abolished the U.S. Court of Claims and established the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and the U.S. Claims Court to share various aspects of the jurisdiction of the former court.

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