Urban Planning of Shanghai Since 1844
Urban Planning of Shanghai Since 1844
1. Planning for a Big Shanghai
I n the early 1920s, Shanghai had already become the largest commercial port in China and an international trade port. However, the busy trade areas were mainly located in the foreign concessions that spread across the Shanghai downtown area. The French Concession, International Concession, and the administrative area of the Nationalist Government were under different administrations. As a result, public utilities were not well coordinated and road traffic was problematic, which caused inconvenience to freight transport. The soaring port throughput highlighted the deficiency of wharfs. Shanghai desperately needed an integrated development plan.
In Nation Building Strategies: Industrial Planning (1922), Sun Yatsen gave his viewpoint: “If Shanghai keeps developing like this, it will not be able to meet the requirements of a world commercial port.” Furthermore, he proposed “building Shanghai Port into an international port.” Following the strategies of Sun Yat-sen, the Shanghai Special Municipal Government was founded in July 1927. In July 1929, the government decided to create a downtown area by including the Jiangwan area (about 7,000 mu, equivalent to 460 ha) with the new commercial port in the north, the concessions in the south, and the Huangpu River in the east. In August of the same year, a Downtown Construction Committee was established to take charge of the planning and construction.
In May 1930, the Downtown Construction Committee compiled Instructions for Shanghai Downtown Area Road System, which laid the foundation for other infrastructure plans in the downtown area. In order to make an overall plan for city development, the committee issued Contents for Planning a Big Shanghai (Draft) to all bureaus to collect relevant data. In June of the same year, it worked out Instructions for Shanghai Zoning and Traffic Plan. According to the Instructions, the planned city area would be located west of the Huangpu River, east of Beixinjing and Hongqiao, and north of Qinghejing; special functional zones would be established for commerce, industry, commercial port, and residences; and plans were also proposed for building waterways and trunk roads.
The railways were state-owned and their construction required the approval and cooperation of the Ministry of Railway Transportation. Shanghai's Municipal Government submitted Instructions for Shanghai Traffic Plan (Railway Plan) to the Ministry of Railway Transportation in July 1930.
The downtown area and its neighboring areas were subsequently divided by Instructions for Shanghai Downtown Area Zoning Plan into zones for politics, commerce, residence A, and residence B. The Instructions for Shanghai New Commercial Port Area Plan (Draft) was also worked out. According to the latter instructions, the commercial port area was to be located south of Yunzaohong and west of the Huangpu River, near the Yangtze River estuary, enjoying the advantages of deep water. Seven large docks and dock warehouses were planned.
In November 1931, Planning for a Big Shanghai was mapped out. Roads were built, such as Qimei Road (Siping Road), Huangxing Road (north section), and Pudong Road (Pudong Road South, Pudong Avenue), and the City Hall, Museum, Library, and Phase I of the Qiujiang Terminal. The implementation of the planning was brought to a halt when the Japanese attacked Shanghai on August 13, 1937.
During the reign of Wang Jingwei (a puppet regime under Japanese control), Shanghai New City Construction Plan was compiled, but was canceled with the surrender of Japan in 1945.
2. Metropolitan Plan of Shanghai
After the Anti-Japanese War, the Shanghai Municipal Government assigned the Construction and Engineering Bureau to take charge of urban planning. In January 1946, a Technical Advisory Committee was established and by March, an urban planning team was organized. In formulating the city planning, the Construction and Engineering Bureau engaged many overseas Chinese architects and engineers newly returned from Europe and America, and applied new urban planning theories such as “organic decentralization,” “expressway,” and “region-wise planning” to finish the first draft of the Great Shanghai Urban Planning.
In August 1946, the Shanghai Urban Planning Committee was formally established. The Municipal Government decided that areas outside of the city line would no longer be taken into consideration. Through research and revision, the second draft of the Great Shanghai Urban Planning was worked out in February 1948. The third draft came out in June 1949 and was approved and published in July 1950.
2.1 First Draft
In September 1945, at the suggestion of Zhao Zukang, Director General of the Municipal Construction and Engineering Bureau, the Shanghai Municipal Government assigned the Construction and Engineering Bureau to prepare Shanghai's urban planning according to the Urban Planning Law and Rules on City Construction of Recovered Areas promulgated by the Nationalist Government. In October, the Municipal Construction and Engineering Bureau invited architects and designers to participate in the planning work. These included Lu Qianshou, a famous architect and the chairperson of China's Architect Association, Professor Paulick from the Architecture Department of St. John's University, Shi Konghuai, an engineer with the Harbor Bureau, Professor Wu Zhihan of Datong University, Zhuang Jun, a famous Chinese architect, Yao Shiqian, chief of the design division of the Municipal Construction and Engineering Bureau, and Cheng Shifu, chief of the Gardening Division.
At a technical symposium on the important principles of urban planning, Zhao Zukang pointed out that Shanghai city planners should consider the actual situation of Shanghai while exploiting the post-World War II city-planning experiences of other countries. It was proposed in March 1946 that Shanghai's urban planning should be based upon national policies and linked with national urban planning policies. The newly formed urban planning team worked out The General Map of Greater Shanghai Regional Planning (First Draft) (Figure 4.2), Shanghai Land Use General Map (First Draft), General Map of Shanghai Arterial System (First Draft). In August 1946, the Municipal Urban Planning Committee was formally founded with Mayor Wu Guozhen serving as chairman, and the director general of the Construction and Engineering Bureau serving as executive secretary. In December of the same year, the Municipal Urban Planning Committee compiled the Report on the Draft of the General Map for Greater Shanghai Urban Planning, which was accompanied by the first drafts of the above three general maps.
2.2 Second Draft
At the first meeting of the Shanghai Urban Planning Committee on August 24, 1946, three disputes arose on the first draft of the General Map of Greater Shanghai Regional Planning.
To begin with, the first draft was impractical and too Westernized. However, the designers argued that science knew no boundary and urban planning should focus on the improvement of living standards for citizens. The plan was made in accordance with the principles of land-use classification by function, organic decentralization, and zoning management. In particular, it laid stress on lowering population density, the highest population density at that time being 240,000 people per square kilometer. According to the plan, the population density was to be controlled within 10,000 people per square kilometer. With half of the green space and road areas included in the residential districts, the residential density would be reduced to 17,000 people per square kilometer.
The second dispute concerned port planning. Shi Konghuai, General Engineer of the Harbor Bureau, held that wharfs should be built along the river and dredged wharfs would only be necessary
when a railway was needed for connection. Since dredged wharfs were costly and needed high dredging expenses every year, he suggested building shore-side quay berths. Nevertheless, according to the customs statistics of 1921, the tonnage of import and export shipping would be doubled every 30 years. It was estimated that the throughput of import and export shipping to and from Shanghai Port would reach 100 million tons by 1996. Even quay berths could not solve the problems, therefore dredged port planning was held back until the second draft. The third dispute was about the development planning of Pudong. Covering an area of 200 square kilometers, Pudong is able to house two million people. With deep water, numerous industries, and wharf-side warehouses, Pudong was to be developed into a port and industrial area.
The Urban Planning Committee believed that Lujiazui could be developed into a commercial zone. However, because of the huge investment required for cross-river transportation, significant development plans were not made for Pudong in the second draft. At the meeting, teams were set up for land, traffic, zoning, housing and townscape, sanitation, finance, and public utilities. According to the meeting decisions, the above teams were to submit their revised planning reports within six months. In May 1947, the General Map of Shanghai Land Use and Artery System (Second Draft) (Figure 4.3) was prepared. In February 1948, the Report on the General Map of Greater Shanghai Urban Planning (Second Draft) was worked out.
The revisions of the second draft focused mainly on the scope and planning period. The planned scope covered 14 administrative areas with an area of 893 square kilometers based on the city line approved by the State Council. If required, it could go beyond the city line. The planning period was 25 years, but with 50 years taken into account.
As for city positioning, the second draft proposed that Shanghai should be a harbor city and become one of the largest industrial and commercial centers in China. Before the Anti-Japanese War, Shanghai was both a domestic and international financial center, this was to continue in the future. Six out of ten imports into China came through Shanghai, while the figure for exports was five
out of ten. The second draft saw the future possibility of seeking a balance in domestic economic development with Shanghai retaining its position in international trade. Shanghai's business development as a domestic trade center could be greatly enhanced.
In 1946, the number of factories in Shanghai reached 31.39% of the total in China. With their total capital accounting for 39.73%of the national total, these factories employed 31.78% of China's workers, and took up 41.7% of China's machine textile industry, 40% of the country's flour industry, 46.6% of its machine industry, and 1.2% of its iron making industry. In view of the city's limited resources, it was believed that Shanghai should focus on light industry.
2.3 Third Draft
During the two years following the completion of the second draft, the Urban Planning Committee held several meetings to discuss the planning and gather feedback, and achieved some of their targets. However, because of inadequate communication, the design of the general map was almost suspended. On March 23, 1949, Zhao Zukang, Executive Secretary of the Shanghai Urban Planning Committee, invited Paulick, Cheng Shifu, Zhong Yaohua, and Jin Jingchang to compile the third draft of the General Map of Shanghai Urban Planning as soon as possible. In May of the same year, the four experts finished the Preliminary Sketch for the Third Draft of Shanghai Urban Planning (Figure 4.4) and its instructions. After the liberation of Shanghai on May 27, 1949, Zhao Zukang continued to compile the third draft upon the approval of Mayor Chen Yi and finished Instructions for the Preliminary Sketch of the Third Draft of the General Map of Shanghai Urban Planning and the General Map on June 6. As for planning principles, organic decentralization was still applied and some revisions on populations and roads were made.
The third draft called for a thorough restructuring of social and economic organizations in order to enable the urban planning to work. It focused on zoning and traffic.
First it defined some principles for zoning, such as industrial and commercial development changing from semi-feudalism to modern enterprises. Production workers and public service personnel would increase during the industrialization process, and the exploiting classes would disappear. The expansion of the city center would be restricted, which meant that harbors, some industries, and the surplus population should be relocated to other areas. The principles for zoning also included the separation by green spaces of the new planning areas and the central area, which were to be connected by convenient transportation.
The third draft planned the building of 11 relatively independent new planning areas separated by green spaces: Songyang, Yunzao, Yinjiang, Zhennan, Puhong, Xinbao, Caotang, Minma, Gaolu, Jingsi, and Zhousheng. All daily household articles were to be made available in these areas.
It was estimated that the population would increase to 7.5–nine million in 1970. Besides the natural increase, the development of factories around the city would also lead to a population rise. According to estimates, the population density of the downtown area would be reduced from 1,000–4,000 per hectare to 400 after the population in the downtown area was dispersed to the suburbs. The third draft included plans to construct residential areas around the industrial areas to form small towns. The draft defined four types of residential areas: A, B, C, and D. A and B were subdivided into two and three categories respectively. C referred to restructured lane-type buildings, while D meant temporary one-story houses. The draft also clearly specified the number of stories, areas, and building coefficients of buildings in commercial districts and industrial areas.
The third draft plans aimed to enhance the standard of green spaces to improve the lives of citizens. It also mentioned all industrial areas and the construction of greenbelts around the downtown area. According to the draft, the percentage of green space in the city's total land area was to increase to 28%.
Road traffic was to be classified by function. Shanghai, located at the Yangtze River Delta, plays an important role in external transportation. Its traffic system has a direct bearing on the wellbeing of half of China's population. However, the previous plans for wharfs, bus stations, roads, and airports were not made on a systemic basis. Because of this, the third draft proposed that the transportation system should be carefully developed according to different functions. One of the functions mentioned in the draft was traffic. Traffic roads should provide smooth passage for vehicles to drive quickly and safely. Other functions included industrial, commercial, and private use. All entrances and exits to and from factories, stores, residences, gardens, and parks were to be built with branch roads and paths so that pedestrians and traffic would not influence each other. The draft classified the city roads as follows: arterial highway roads, arterial streets, auxiliary arterial roads; branch roads and access roads for industrial, commercial, and living use.
In order to ensure smooth traffic flow, it proposed the reduction of man-powered vehicles and encouraged the development of public motor vehicles. The suggested speed on 200-meter-wide express arterial roads was 150 kilometers per hour and that on 100-meterwide arterial roads was set at 100 kilometers per hour. Elevated roads were proposed in old areas.
The third draft also suggested building six arterial highways leading to North China, South China, and Central China, at the same time ensuring smooth traffic between the downtown area and industrial areas. The draft also suggested centralizing the harbor construction at Yunzaobangkou in Wusong while other wharfs would only play a supplementary role. The new harbor was to be equipped with modern handling machines and new-style warehouses for handling bulk cargo.
The urban railway system was planned to connect all new ports. The draft recommended the North Station as the general station for passenger transport and the new railway line, between Hejiawan and Zhenru, for freight handling, to coordinate closely with the planned new port at Wusong.
Dachang Airport was to be the main terminal for international airlines and domestic long-haul airlines. Longhua Airport was also to be used by domestic and overseas airlines in the future, while the outlying Hongqiao and Jiangwan Airports would be used as secondary airports. The draft also made preliminary arrangements for airports catering to short-distance airplanes and hydroplanes in Shanghai and the surrounding areas.
3. Master City Plan of Shanghai, 1953
In September 1953, the City Construction Administration of the Government Administration Council appointed a USSR expert in urban planning to guide the compilation of the Master City Plan of Shanghai (Figure 4.5). In a report addressed to the Municipal People's Government, the USSR expert pointed out that Shanghai's main task was to meet the ever-increasing material and cultural demands of Shanghai's people. On top of the planning theories and methods from the Soviet Union, he introduced methods to rebuild cities with socialist principles. The existing city foundation was preserved and a new plan was formulated to thoroughly adjust the locations of residences, factories, railways, transportation, and warehouses. Based on a reasonable arrangement, the new plan aimed to lower population density while creating adequate and complete living conditions for city dwellers. In addition, squares, main streets, riverbanks, and gardens were artistically organized in accordance with the Master Plan. Artistic forms of classical and modern architecture would be combined in light of the characteristics of the city and applied in constructing residences and public buildings.
3.1 Population Scale
According to data available in 1953, the basic population of Shanghai for planning purposes was set at 1.5 million. Based on the Soviet Union urban planning indexes, this figure would amount to 25% to 30% of the total population of Shanghai in 20 years time, which ranged between five and six million. The median of 5.5 million conformed to the control figure proposed by the Municipal Construction Commission.
3.2 Land Use Scale
Based on the experience of the Soviet Union, residential districts occupied two-thirds of urban land, including dwelling communities, green spaces and parks, streets and squares, and public buildings. Taking into account the weather conditions and geology of Shanghai, residential blocks averaging five stories were the most practical. With
5.5 million people to house, the total land area needed for residential purposes was 365 square kilometers, translating into 500 square kilometers of land for the whole city, or 550 square kilometers with the inclusion of special districts.
3.3 Port Area Planning
As a port city, Shanghai's Master Plan for the use and zoning of land had to take into account the development requirements of harbors and the shipbuilding industry. According to forecasts made by relevant departments, a coastline of over 15 kilometers would be needed when the annual throughput of Shanghai Port reached 30 million tons.
Currently, the planned coastline is 24 kilometers. To ensure reasonable zoning and development of the port, the suggested general outline of the harbor area was as follows: deep-sea passenger and freight terminals located at Waihongqiao area; barge terminals for seagoing vessels located at Minsheng Road, Pudong; bulky cargo handling areas that need ship-to-shore transport located at Zhanghuabang and Wusong, joining up with the extension of the feeder railway to the airport; petroleum and dangerous goods handling areas located at Gaoqiaosha; passenger and freight terminals of the Yangtze River and inland rivers located at Shiliupu and Laobaibu respectively; those needing ship-to-shore transport located at Rihui Port area; Yangtze River steamers and barges terminals located at the Nanmatou and Bailianjing areas. Bases and waterfronts around the former Jiangnan Shipyard, Hudong Shipyard, and Wusong Machinery Plant were reserved to develop the shipbuilding industry. In order to ensure smooth inland navigation, the plan suggested digging a 100-meter-wide canal between Yunzaobang and Suzhou River. In addition, the plan considered the riverbanks and suggested removing the wharfs on the west side of the Huangpu River between the estuary of the Suzhou River and Renmin Road to build a riverside park; removing old warehouses and shipbuilding factories in Lujiazui to build parks, opening up the riverbanks between Nanmatou and Nanshi Water Plant as green spaces.
3.4 Layout of Industrial Districts
The plan canceled the hazardous Beixinjing Industrial Area mentioned in Shanghai Development Orientation Map (Draft) because Beixinjing is located upstream on the Suzhou River and its pollution would influence the city center downstream. The plan also suggested building Yangpu Industrial Area along the Yangpu River between Zhenru and Dachang. The location could save the industrial area from smoke and dust affecting the downtown area. At the same time, the feeder line of Dachang Airport could be applied for railway transportation. The former Taopu River could be broadened to directly reach Yunzaobang. Treated sewage would be directly discharged to Yunzaobang before flowing into the Yangtze River, thus preventing the pollution of the downtown area.
Only non-hazardous industries, such as textile and food industries, were allowed in the existing Huxi Industrial Area, excluding other industries such as printing and dyeing works. Sewers were to be built to prevent sewage from flowing into the Suzhou River. Hudong Industrial District allowed only non-hazardous factories, such as textile, food, and machinery works. The plan also suggested gradually relocating Shanghai No. 2 Steelworks Co., Ltd and merging it with Shanghai No. 1 Steelworks Co., Ltd., because the former was a small factory with outdated machinery and its smoke and dust seriously affected the residents in peripheral areas.
3.5 Distribution of Residential Districts
The plan suggested dividing the 360 square kilometers of residential land into 20 to 30 residential areas to enable residents to live as close as possible to their places of work.
3.6 Greenbelts and Sports Areas
The plan held that recreation and leisure places should be created for urban residents, such as sports areas and swimming pools for youth, and quiet parks and fishing ponds for senior citizens. Following the Soviet Union guidelines of 12 square meters of green space per capita, the total green space of Shanghai was set at 60 square kilometers. Both large city-level cultural parks and district-level parks were to be built. Green spaces between citylevel parks and district-level parks were to be created to ensure fresh air for the city center. Green spaces lying close to rivers would be encouraged. Piling yards of sand, stone, and tiles along the Suzhou River were to be removed to allow the construction of leisure areas and greenbelts. The plan also suggested building a central cultural park in Lujiazui, Pudong. City-level and districtlevel sports areas would also be available and well coordinated. Apart from Xujialutan in Gaoqiao, Jinshanwei in Hangzhou Bay was chosen as a bathing beach.
3.7 Centers for Social Activities
Centers for social activities would be built to accommodate gatherings, celebrations, parades, and leisure. These centers would be erected in the seats of all governments of different levels and in the squares of bus and train stations. Government buildings should highlight the importance of a people's regime in form, location, and layout. The plan recommended placing the City Hall in the southwest of People's Square, with other centers distributed around the city.
3.8 Artistic Architectural Layout
The plan lay special emphasis on the artistic architectural layout during urban planning and development. Aware that Shanghai was the largest port city in China, welcoming vessels from around the world, the urban planners aimed to show the city's “grandeur, splendor, democracy, richness, power and peace.” The plan maintained the architectural style of the Bund, which reflected the townscape of Shanghai, and suggested broadening Fuzhou Road to 40 meters wide so as to form an axis-line extending to the west from the Bund via City Hall in People's Square. The axis-line after City Hall was blocked by Huadong Hospital; as a result it branched into two lines with building clusters and green spaces in between.
After the axis-line was fixed, Shanghai Mansions Hotel and Customs Building were to be built along the Bund, with symmetrical buildings built to their south, extending the effect of the axis-line.
As a result, people at the riverside could see the City Hall standing splendidly in the green People's Square. The squares outside railway stations and passenger ports were also considered focal points of the city. Squares, central parks, and industrial areas were included in the overall artistic layout plan and were to be linked by radial roads. The building clusters in the Bund could only be seen from vessels in the river, however, the panorama of Shanghai could be seen if a park was constructed in Lujiazui, one which would include a towering memorial.
The plan also adopted an integrated system of ring roads and radial roads. It also put forward suggestions for the distribution of warehouse areas and cultural and educational areas. The Yangpu Industrial Area, Wuning Road, and Wuninglu Bridge were constructed. The construction of an industrial area which would generate waste gas, waste water, and garbage (the “three wastes”) in Beixinjing was called off. Huangpu Park was extended to the Bund and Pudong Park was constructed. In addition, the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building (now known as the Shanghai Exhibition Center) was constructed in accordance with the layout of the axis-line.
4. Master City Plan of Shanghai, 1959
In January and November 1958, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved the transfer of ten counties in Jiangsu Province to Shanghai, including Baoshan, Jiading, and Songjiang. This greatly promoted the city's development. With regards to the development scale and objective, the Shanghai Municipal Government considered it the general aim of construction and development in Shanghai: to efficiently meet the growing requirements of people's living standards; to further develop advanced, precise, and topgrade industries; to constantly increase labor productivity; and to turn Shanghai into one of the most advanced and beautiful cities in the world in terms of industrial production, culture, science, and the arts. As far as the basic mission of urban planning and construction was concerned, the Municipal Government thought it important to reorganize and regulate the old downtown industries by gradually building satellite towns, building and relocating industrial areas, reducing the urban population of the old town areas to three million, eliminating old shacks, renovating old residences and building new residences, constructing squares around arterial streets, and expanding and constructing public buildings. In short, all these efforts were aimed to make people's lives more comfortable.
In June 1959, at the invitation of the Shanghai Municipal People's Committee, the Urban Planning Bureau under the Ministry of Construction and Engineering organized a planning team to help compile the Shanghai Master Plan. In October 1959, the team finished Preliminary Suggestions on the Master City Plan of Shanghai, which advanced the policy of gradually reconstructing the old downtown area, strictly controlling the expansion of suburban industrial areas, and developing satellite towns in a planned way. The team also worked out the Sketch Map of Shanghai Regional Planning and The Master Plan Sketch of Shanghai.
5. Master City Plan of Shanghai, 1986
In the early 1980s, the Master City Plan of Shanghai was worked out and implemented with the approval of the State Council of the People's Republic of China in 1986. It was the first city master plan of Shanghai approved by the Central Government. According to this plan, the development guidelines of Shanghai were: constructing and rebuilding the central area; focusing on developing the Pudong district; developing satellite towns; a step-by-step development of the south bank of the estuary of the Yangtze River and the north bank of Hangzhou Bay; and gradually constructing small towns in the suburbs, so as to make Shanghai a modern socialist city that would take the central area as its main body while maintaining an organic tie with some relatively independent suburban towns. Guided by the Plan, Shanghai made great progress in regulating its industrial layout, developing new functional areas, and reconstructing the old city. A large group of urban infrastructure projects have already been successively completed, laying a solid material foundation and basic framework for Shanghai in the 21st century.
6. Master Plan of Pudong New Area
In the early 1990s, China declared the opening of Pudong to the world. The decision brought new development opportunities to Shanghai. The Master Plan of Pudong New Area, compiled in 1992, aimed to meet the requirements of the concept of “new-centuryoriented and modernization oriented.” The Master Plan was to build Shanghai and Pudong New Area into a large, modern, socialist city on the basis of the successful experience of both Chinese and foreign cities. The plan specifically projected a reasonable layout, an advanced comprehensive transport network, complete urban infrastructure, modern information system, and a favorable ecological environment. The development of Pudong was expected to drive the reform and development of Puxi and revive Shanghai's function as the economic center of China. At the same time the development would lay a good foundation for building Shanghai into a world economic and trade center.
7. Master City Plan of Shanghai, 2001
In 1992, the Chinese government made the important strategic decision to build Shanghai into a world-class economic, financial, and trading center, which radically changed the strategic position, character, and functions of Shanghai. In May 2001, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved the Master City Plan of Shanghai (1999–2020). According to the plan, Shanghai's city construction and economic development should follow a strategy of sustainable development to achieve a balance between economy, society, population, resources, and environment. It should take technological innovation as its driving force so that it can optimize and upgrade its industrial structure, develop its service industry represented by finance and insurance, and high-tech industries represented by the information industry, and strengthen its urban functions. The ultimate goal is to build Shanghai into an international metropolis with a prosperous economy, advanced social culture with an attractive environment, and into a world-class economic, financial, trading, and shipping center.
Shanghai was to adopt an overall planning that would take into consideration the coordinated regional development of the Yangtze River Delta. Following the principle of harmonious development and urban-rural integration, Shanghai would take its central area as its main body and seek an urban spatial layout characterized by multiple axes, layers, and cores.
The central area within the Outer Ring Line was to be built into a central business district with multiple centers and open spaces. The multiple centers would include a central business district and main public activity centers. The central business district would consist of Little Lujiazui in Pudong and the Bund in Puxi. The main public activity centers would include a city-level one located around People's Square and four city-level sub-centers: Xujiahui, Huamu, Jiangwan-Wujiaochang, and Zhenru. Open spaces referred to wedge-like greenbelts and the sensitive areas of urban construction surrounding arterial roads, rivers, and water bodies (Figure 4.6).
"Urban Planning of Shanghai Since 1844." Shanghai Urban Planning. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 6, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/international-magazines/urban-planning-shanghai-1844
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