Skip to main content

Rivera Carballo, Julio Adalberto (1921–1973)

Rivera Carballo, Julio Adalberto (1921–1973)

Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo (b. 1921; d. 29 July 1973), army officer and president of El Salvador (1962–1967). Lieutenant Colonel Rivera headed the provisional government established on 25 January 1961, when a military coup d'état overthrew a leftist junta that had been in power since October 1960. Later, he resigned in order to assume leadership of the National Conciliation Party (PCN). In 1962, he was elected to the presidency as the PCN candidate, following a campaign boycotted by the opposition parties.

Although an outspoken anti-Communist, Rivera appeared to accept the Kennedy administration's argument that the best way to defeat communism was to attack poverty, injustice, and tyranny at home. An enthusiastic supporter of the Alliance for Progress, Rivera initiated a number of significant reforms in El Salvador, including a rural minimum wage. He also liberalized the political system, a policy that encouraged the development of opposition parties. In pushing reforms over conservative objections, Rivera benefited from the country's rapid economic growth in the early 1960s. Later, however, a downturn caused problems for his handpicked successor, Colonel Fidel Sánchez Hernández (1967–1972). Rivera was serving as ambassador to the United States at the time of his death.

See alsoEl Salvador, Political Parties: National Conciliation Party (PCN) .


On Salvadoran politics in the 1960s, see Stephen Webre, José Napoleón Duarte and the Christian Democratic Party in Salvadoran Politics, 1960–1972 (1979); James Dunkerley, Power in the Isthmus: A Political History of Modern Central America (1988); and Sara Gordon Rapoport, Crisis política y guerra en El Salvador (1989).

Additional Bibliography

Domínguez, Carlos Armando. Datos para una biografía del ex Presidente de la República Julio Adalberto Rivera. San Salvador: Taller Gráfico UCA, 1998.

                                      Stephen Webre

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Rivera Carballo, Julio Adalberto (1921–1973)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 19 Jan. 2019 <>.

"Rivera Carballo, Julio Adalberto (1921–1973)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (January 19, 2019).

"Rivera Carballo, Julio Adalberto (1921–1973)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.