Skip to main content

Resguardo

Resguardo

Resguardo, a Colombian institution regulating indigenous landholdings. The resguardo is a territorial unit comprising communal and inalienable lands administered by native authorities and legitimized by colonial titles granted to indigenous communities. Resguardos were carved out of more extensive aboriginal territories by the colonial administration in order to isolate indigenous populations from surrounding ethnic groups and to free remaining aboriginal lands for exploitation by non-Indians. By the eighteenth century, however, the resguardo served as a vehicle for expanding native holdings and for legitimizing new forms of indigenous authority.

During the Republican period, the Colombian state enacted legislation to privatize resguardo lands but was only partially successful; alliances between regional elites and indigenous communities under the federalist system succeeded in maintaining the institution, especially in the southern highlands. A return to centralized political authority in the last decade of the nineteenth century brought a more protectionist Indian policy that codified the existence of the resguardo as a small and politically weak unit dependent upon municipal authorities.

Notwithstanding protectionist legislation, state policy in the twentieth century continued to foster the privatization of resguardo lands. Some extinguished resguardos, however, succeeded in revalidating their communal status during the 1980s, and existing ones expanded their territorial base by occupying usurped lands. Indigenous communal landholdings received more extensive protection under the 1991 Constitution, which transcended existing resguardo legislation, granting native communities the right to define modes of territorial organization.

See alsoEncomienda; Pueblos de indios; Repartimiento.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Juan Friede, El indio en lucha por la tierra, 2d ed. (1972).

Margarita González, El resguardo en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, 2d ed. (1979).

Adolfo Triana, Legislación indígena nacional (1980).

Myriam Jimeno and Adolfo Triana, Estado y minorías étnicas en Colombia (1985).

Joanne Rappaport, The Politics of Memory: Native Historical Interpretation in the Colombian Andes (1990).

Additional Bibliography

Bohórquez M., Carmen L. El resguardo en la Nueva Granada: Proteccionismo o despojo? Bogotá: Editorial Nueva América, 1997.

Castro Blanco, Elias. La extinción de los resguardos indígenas de Colombaima y Paquilo en Ambalema en el siglo XIX. Bogotá: CRIT: Notaría de Ambalema, 1999.

Gros, Christian. Políticas de la etnicidad: Identidad, estado y modernidad. Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia, 2001.

Holguín Sarria, Armando. Los indígenas en la Constitución colombiana. Bogotá: G. Rivas Moreno, 1997.

Maybury-Lewis, David. The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies: Distributed by Harvard University Press, 2002.

                                         Joanne Rappaport

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Resguardo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Resguardo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/resguardo

"Resguardo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/resguardo

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.