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An intellectual outlook found particularly in early twentieth-century Egypt.

Intellectuals of a Pharaonicist orientation assumed the existence of a unique Egyptian national character shared by ancient and modern Egypt; their writings attempted to demonstrate the ancient Pharaonic origins of many of the characteristics and traits of contemporary Egyptians. Expounded particularly by those Egyptians who were educated in Europe or who were Westernized intellectuals, Pharaonicism faded as Arab-Muslim nationalist sentiment grew in Egypt.

james jankowski