Peru–Bolivia Confederation

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Peru–Bolivia Confederation

Peru—Bolivia Confederation, a short-lived (1837–1839) alliance created by Andrés de Santa Cruz. After he became president of Bolivia in 1829, Santa Cruz began forging the confederation through decisive political and military action. Officially proclaimed on 1 May 1837, it was composed of North and South Peru and Bolivia, each with a separate administration. Santa Cruz was proclaimed the protector for ten years and became the absolute ruler. The confederation was recognized by France and Britain but provoked the military intervention of Argentina and Chile. Argentine forces were repulsed, but after initial success against the Chilean contingents, troops commanded by Santa Cruz were routed on 20 January 1839, at the battle of Yungay. Santa Cruz fled into exile aboard a British frigate. A united Peru and an independent Bolivia emerged.

See alsoWar of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation .


Alfonso Crespo, Santa Cruz (1944).

Ernesto Díez Canseco, Perú y Bolivia: Pueblos gemelos (1952).

Additional Bibliography

Maquito Colque, Tania Micaela. La sociedad arequipeña y la Confederación Perú-Boliviana, 1836–1839. Arequipa: DREMSUR Editores, 2003.

                                         Charles W. Arnade