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London, Treaty of (1604)

London, Treaty of (1604)

Treaty of (1604) London, agreement between Spain and England ending a protracted conflict highlighted by the famous defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. Issues raised in negotiations during the summer of 1604 included English demands for trade with Spanish colonies, but the demands were denied and there is no mention of them in the final treaty signed 19 August 1604. The treaty was restricted to arrangements in Europe and included an end to English aid to the Dutch and protection of Spanish ships in the English Channel. Outside Europe ("beyond the line"), war between the colonial powers and England's policy of "effective occupation" continued unabated. The treaty, however, ended a war that was disastrous for Spain and marked the end of the age of Queen Elizabeth and Sir Francis Drake and the beginning of Anglo-Spanish cooperation (aided by the accession [1603] in England of James I).

See alsoDrake, Francis; Spanish Empire.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Charles Howard Carter, The Secret Diplomacy of the Habsburgs, 1598–1625 (1964).

                            Suzanne Hiles Burkholder

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