Skip to main content

Lebanese Front

LEBANESE FRONT

a coalition of major christian conservative parties, which became an important player in the 1975 civil war in lebanon.

Established in 1976, the Lebanese Front included the National Liberal Party of the former president, Camille Chamoun; Sulayman Franjiyya, the president of Lebanon when the Lebanese Civil War began in 1975; Pierre Jumayyil, head of the Phalangethe front's major military power; the Guardians of Cedars; the Permanent Congress of the Lebanese Orders of Monks; al-Tanzim of Dr. Fuad Shemali; the Maronite League headed by Shakir Abu Sulayman; and other independent personalities such as Dr. Charles Malik, Fuʾad Bustani, and Edward Honein.

In August 1976, the coalition established a military branch, known as the Lebanese Forces, which could mobilize 30,000 troops. At the beginning of 1978, Franjiyya became critical of the open collaboration between Israeli government officials and front leaders Chamoun and Jumayyil. Franjiyya was also against the Camp David peace accord negotiations between Egypt and Israel (approved by other front members) but championed a close relationship with Syria. In May 1978, Franjiyya resigned from the front. It was subsequently wracked with dissent and disintegrated.

The Lebanese Front charter had stressed the need to maintain the unity of Lebanon, to reestablish the authority of the law, and to respect private enterprise in the economic sector.

see also franjiyya, sulayman; jumayyil, pierre; lebanese forces; national liberal party.


Bibliography


Al-Montada Reports. The Lebanese Conflict, 19751979 (Dossier 2). Beirut, 1979.

george e. irani

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Lebanese Front." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Lebanese Front." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lebanese-front

"Lebanese Front." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lebanese-front

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.