Herrera, José Joaquín Antonio Florencio (1792–1854)

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Herrera, José Joaquín Antonio Florencio (1792–1854)

José Joaquín Antonio Florencio Herrera (b. 23 February 1792; d. 10 February 1854), Mexican general and politician. Born at Jalapa, Herrera was twice president of Mexico (1844–1845 and 1848–1851) and had a distinguished career in both the army and in political life. He fought for the royalists in the War of Independence, retiring in 1820 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel to Perote, where he opened a drugstore. After the publication of the Plan of Iguala, he joined the insurgency and was promoted to brigadier-general. A member of the first independent congress, he opposed Agustín de Iturbide and was jailed. His subsequent career alternated between senior military commands and political posts as minister of war, member of congress, and governor of the Federal District. Known as a moderate liberal federalist, he was elected interim president in 1844 and president in 1845. Forced to resign as the result of a military revolt, he was accused of being willing to negotiate the surrender of Texas to the United States. He was elected to congress in 1846–1847 and was military commander of Mexico City during the U.S. invasion. In 1848, he was again elected president, and served until the completion of his term in 1851, only the second Mexican head of state up to that time to do so. Herrera was director of the national pawn shop (Monte de Piedad) after he left the presidency, and retired in 1853.

See alsoMexico: 1810–1910; Plan of Iguala.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Thomas Ewing Cotner, The Military and Political Career of José Joaquín de Herrera (1792–1854) (1969).

Additional Bibliography

García Icazbalceta, Joaquín, and Martínez, Manuel Guillermo. Biografías, estudios. México: Porrúa, 1998.

González Avelar, Miguel. México en el umbral de la reforma. México: Federación Editorial Mexicana, 1971.

Infante Padilla, Ricardo. Semblanza del General José Joaquín de Herrera y Ricardos. México: Ediciones Diaro de Guerrero, 1998.

Rivera Cambas, Manuel, and Pasquel, Leonardo. José Joaquín de Herrera. México: Editorial Citlaltépetl, 1972.

Trueba, Alfonso. Presidente sin mancha. México: Editorial Jus, 1959.

                                  Michael P. Costeloe