Islamist uprising against Syrian regime.
In February 1982, Syrian security forces entered the densely populated old city of Hama, situated on the Orontes River south of Aleppo, to search for weapons hidden by Islamist militants. Local residents, urged on by alarms from neighborhood mosques, attacked the troops and pushed them out of the central city. Armed militants then seized control of the provincial headquarters of the ruling Baʿth Party and other key government installations. Elite military and security units commanded by the president's brother, Colonel Rifʿat al-Asad, rushed to the area and, from the heights of the nearby citadel, rained artillery and tank fire into the town, leveling its major commercial and residential districts. Estimates of the dead range from 10,000 to 30,000.
Although Hama had long been a center of Islamist political activism and the location of frequent outbreaks of popular challenge to successive Baʿthist regimes after the 1963 revolution, the 1982 uprising was notable for its massive scale, the broad range of social forces that took part, the high degree of organization evidenced by its leaders, and the ruthlessness with which it was crushed. The most militant Islamist organization in north-central Syria, the Fighting Vanguard, led by Adnan Uqla, never recovered. Even more moderate Islamists scaled back their activities sharply, while some prominent figures, to avoid being harassed, tortured, and killed, initiated overtures to the authorities. For almost a decade the government refused to allocate funds to rebuild the city, whose ruins stood as a stark warning to other dissidents.
See also hama.
Abd-Allah, Umar F. The Islamic Struggle in Syria. Berkeley, CA: Mizan Press, 1983.
fred h. lawson
"Hama Massacre." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hama-massacre
"Hama Massacre." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved December 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hama-massacre
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.