Decena Trágica, "the tragic ten days" of violence that erupted in Mexico City as a result of a revolt against the government of Francisco I. Madero that began on 9 February 1913. The rebels, led by generals Félix Díaz, Manuel Mandragón, and Bernardo Reyes, failed to take the National Palace but seized a strong position at La Ciudadela, the army's ammunition depot. General Victoriano Huerta was appointed commander of the government forces.
For ten days artillery fire raked the capital, causing extensive damage and fueling cries for a settlement that weakened support for the already tottering Madero government. On 18 February troops loyal to Huerta, under the command of General Aureliano Blanquet, seized Francisco Madero, while Huerta arrested his brother Gustavo. With Madero effectively deposed, U.S. ambassador Henry Lane Wilson mediated talks between Huerta and Díaz, which led to the Pact of the Embassy recognizing Huerta as provisional president. Madero was assassinated four days later.
Stanley R. Ross, Francisco I. Madero: Apostle of Mexican Democracy (1955).
Kenneth J. Grieb, The United States and Huerta (1969).
Michael C. Meyer, Huerta: A Political Portrait (1972).
Guzmán, Martín Luis. Febrero de 1913. México: Empresas Editoriales, 1963.
Guzmán, Martín Luis. Muertes históricas: Febrero de 1913. México, DF: Editorial Planeta Mexicana, 2001.
Katz, Friedrich. De Díaz a Madero. México, DF: Ediciones Era, 2004.
Tablada, José Juan. La Ciudadela del fuego: O ochenta años de la Decena Trágica. Mexico: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, 1993.
Kenneth J. Grieb