Important Role. Scribes played a vital role in the government bureaucracy, religion, and intellectual life of ancient Egypt. There was a clear development over time from scribes who were recorders of the word to intellectuals who created the text they wrote. The Egyptologist Alessandro Rocatti has speculated that the scribe’s importance during the Old Kingdom (circa 2675-2130 b.c.e.) was his ability to read words accurately. This capability was more greatly valued than the skill to write itself. Reading accuracy would have been especially important in religious rituals where priests recited spells exactly as the gods had ordained. During the same period, other scribes were charged with keeping administrative records, but they would have had a lower social status.
Growing Need. Literature beyond administrative lists and religious texts developed during the Middle Kingdom (circa 1980-1630 b.c.e.). It included narratives; manuals of medicine, mathematics, and astronomy; and maps. Government during the Middle Kingdom increased its dependence on the written word too. This dependence led to a need for more scribes, a source of social mobility in this period. At least some administrative scribes were descended from farmers who had somehow recognized their sons’ abilities.
Intellectual Class. In the New Kingdom (circa 1539-1075 b.c.e.) an intellectual class of scribes developed. They admired the famous authors of the Old and Middle Kingdom—Hardjedef, Imhotep, Khety, and Neferti. These four men were high-ranking officials of the past whose memory was maintained through their writings. The new intellectual class called themselves scribes and produced in their own time manuals of behavior. This group includes Ani and Amenemope. The New Kingdom also produced scribes who could translate foreign languages such as Akkadian, used in Mesopotamia, and Hittite, used in Anatolia. By the Late Period (circa 664-332 b.c.e.) scribes emphasized their ability to find and interpret older texts.
Pierre Montet, Everyday Life in Egypt in the Days of Ramesses the Great, translated and by A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop and Margaret S. Drower (London: E. Arnold, 1958).
Alessandro Roccati, “Scribes,” in The Egyptians, edited by Sergio Donadoni (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), pp. 61–86.
John A. Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956).
"Scribes." World Eras. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/scribes
"Scribes." World Eras. . Retrieved September 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/scribes
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.