Skip to main content

Pombal, Marquês de 1699–1782

MarquÊs de Pombal
1699–1782

Dom Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the Marquês de Pombal, was the controversial autocratic Portuguese chief minister under King José I (1750–1777). Pombal's rationalist reform policies initiated an unprecedented period of modernization that profoundly shaped the economic and intellectual culture of his nation. Pombal strove to increase domestic manufactures and reduce the influence of foreign agents in the Portuguese economy, chiefly the British merchant community in Lisbon. As Portuguese ambassador to London (1739–1743) and Vienna (1745–1749), he absorbed principles of mercantilist economic theory and the Enlightenment (Pombal joined London's Royal Society in 1740). He returned to Lisbon determined to strengthen Portugal's position internationally through a program of rational reform. In 1750 Pombal oversaw the founding of the Royal Factory of Silks in Lisbon, an attempt to domestically produce traditionally imported luxury textiles. To encourage the growth of a Brazilian colonial merchant class (and thereby deter British encroachment on the imperial economy), Pombal instituted the monopoly trading company of Grão Pará and Maranhão (1755). In 1756 Pombal established the world's first demarcated wine region to regulate Port wine production, thus stabilizing the market for Portugal's most important export commodity. Pombal's steady, proactive leadership following the Lisbon earthquake (1755) allowed him to strengthen his influence over Portuguese society. Major social and intellectual reform initiatives ensued: the expulsion of the Jesuit Order (1759); a rationalist reform of the Coimbra University curriculum (1772); and curtailment of the Inquisition's power through a restructuring of that institution's bylaws (1774).

SEE ALSO Brazil; Empire, British; Empire, Portuguese; Lisbon; Mercantilism; Monopoly; Porto; Portugal; Wine; Wool.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Maxwell, Kenneth. Pombal: Paradox of the Enlightenment. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Timothy D. Walker

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Pombal, Marquês de 1699–1782." History of World Trade Since 1450. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Pombal, Marquês de 1699–1782." History of World Trade Since 1450. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/pombal-marques-de-1699-1782

"Pombal, Marquês de 1699–1782." History of World Trade Since 1450. . Retrieved August 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/pombal-marques-de-1699-1782

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.