Flourished Fourth Century b.c.e.
King, dynasty 30
External Threat. Nectanebo I ruled Egypt from 381 to 362 b.c.e. In 373 the Persians attempted to reimpose their rule on the area, but Nectanebo I outmaneuvered the 220,000-man enemy army near Mendes in the Nile delta, forcing it to retreat. The external threat to Egypt diminished significantly thereafter as rebellions throughout their empire preoccupied the Persian kings.
Domestic Achievements. A patron of the arts, Nectanebo I also undertook a massive building program, especially at Philae, Edfu, and Hermopolis Magna. In 380 the pharaoh dedicated a large stone marker at the prosperous harbor of Herakleion, officially declaring it to be the Nile’s exit to the Mediterranean Sea.
Lionel Casson, The Pharaohs (Chicago: Stonehenge, 1981).
Barry J. Kemp, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization (London & New York: Routledge, 1991).