Throckmorton plot, 1583. This was one of many conspiracies to free Mary, queen of Scots, and put her on the throne in place of Elizabeth. Francis Throckmorton was son of Sir John Throckmorton, chief justice of Chester, disgraced in 1579. Francis Throckmorton, a catholic, spent the early 1580s on the continent and in 1583 was acting as go-between for Mary and Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador in London. When he was arrested a list of catholic conspirators and details of possible invasion ports were found. Throckmorton confessed under torture and was executed at Tyburn in July 1584. Mendoza was expelled, and left threatening to return with an army.
J. A. Cannon
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