Skip to main content

Mesopotamian campaign

Mesopotamian campaign, 1914–18. Following Turkey's entry into the First World War in November 1914, a small Anglo-Indian force landed in Mesopotamia. The purpose of the expedition was to protect the nearby Persian oilfields and to deny the Turks and their German allies access to the head of the Persian Gulf, from whence they might threaten British India. Encouraged by early victories, but inadequately supplied, the British advanced towards Baghdad, but were halted by the Turks in November 1915. A considerable British force was besieged at Kut and surrendered in April 1916. Prestige demanded that this defeat be avenged and in March 1917, with fresh troops and a new commander, the British finally occupied Baghdad. They then pressed slowly forward until, following an armistice with the Turks in October 1918, they had occupied the strategically important oilfields around Mosul in northern Mesopotamia.

David French

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Mesopotamian campaign." The Oxford Companion to British History. . 16 Sep. 2019 <>.

"Mesopotamian campaign." The Oxford Companion to British History. . (September 16, 2019).

"Mesopotamian campaign." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved September 16, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.