Most lead-mines were located in relatively remote areas which lacked high-value agricultural land. In consequence the value of lead and the skills needed to mine the ores enabled miners to sustain their social independence from the attempts of feudal magnates to control them. Miners secured separate special jurisdictions and regulated their mining activities and social life. These legal privileges remained in being until most of them were superseded by the formation of commercial mining companies during the 16th cent. or later. These organizations became necessary to pay for the equipment needed for extracting ores at greater depths and to meet the costs of installing furnaces making use of water-powered bellows in smelting processes. Capital from outside the lead-mining areas came first during the 16th cent. when lead prices rose as the metal was used more extensively, including for making weapons. Lead-mining intensified during the late 18th cent. as a consequence of increased demand. But mining in Britain became less worthwhile once cheaper supplies of lead from overseas became available and British mining dwindled rapidly in importance after 1850.
Ian John Ernest Keil
"lead-mining." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lead-mining
"lead-mining." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lead-mining
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.