Most lead-mines were located in relatively remote areas which lacked high-value agricultural land. In consequence the value of lead and the skills needed to mine the ores enabled miners to sustain their social independence from the attempts of feudal magnates to control them. Miners secured separate special jurisdictions and regulated their mining activities and social life. These legal privileges remained in being until most of them were superseded by the formation of commercial mining companies during the 16th cent. or later. These organizations became necessary to pay for the equipment needed for extracting ores at greater depths and to meet the costs of installing furnaces making use of water-powered bellows in smelting processes. Capital from outside the lead-mining areas came first during the 16th cent. when lead prices rose as the metal was used more extensively, including for making weapons. Lead-mining intensified during the late 18th cent. as a consequence of increased demand. But mining in Britain became less worthwhile once cheaper supplies of lead from overseas became available and British mining dwindled rapidly in importance after 1850.
Ian John Ernest Keil
"lead-mining." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lead-mining
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