The Gentle Art of Diplomacy

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The Gentle Art of Diplomacy

Excerpt from "Frederick II to Henry III of England," in Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (1229)
Originally written by Frederick II; Reprinted in Liber qui dictiur Flores Historiarum ab anno Domini MCLIV annoque Henrici Anglorum regis Secundi primo; Edited by H. G. Hewlett; Published in 1886–89

Excerpt from Matthew Paris's Chronica Majora (1258)
Originally written by Gerold, Patriarch of Jerusalem; Reprinted in "Letters of the Crusaders," in Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History; Translated by Dana C. Munro; Published in 1896

The disasters of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and of the so-called Children's Crusade in 1212 left the Christian world worried about the fate of the Holy Land. Pope Innocent III continued to call for a new Crusade, but he died in 1216, before he could see that his attempts to gather a European army for a new holy war in Palestine had finally succeeded. Honorius III, who became the next pope, continued to write letters to the nobles calling for a Crusade. By 1217 enough German and French nobles had signed on for the expedition, which was planned to strike Egypt, take its main city of Cairo, and then use the resources of that kingdom to launch a strike at Jerusalem itself.

This Crusade, unlike earlier ones, was partly led by a church leader, Cardinal Pelagius, whom Honorius III sent as his personal representative. The main leader was, however, King John of Jerusalem, who ruled his very tiny kingdom from the Mediterranean port of Acre, almost totally surrounded by unfriendly Muslims. The Fifth Crusade lasted from 1218 to 1221 and was as unsuccessful as earlier ones conducted by the Christians. The Egyptian sultan (ruler), al-Malik al-Kamil, managed to defeat the Crusaders at the Battle of Mansurah on the Nile River before they reached Cairo, despite an early Crusader victory at the town of Damietta. The Crusade was long and drawn out; Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order of monks and church reformer, even made an appearance in 1219 to try to persuade al-Kamil to change religions and so end the battle. The Muslim declined the offer but was impressed with Francis's courage to put himself into the hands of the enemy.

With the failure of the Fifth Crusade, the church stopped sponsoring holy wars in the Middle East. The next two Crusades were funded by royalty, both the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick II, and the king of France, Louis IX. Frederick II had long been an enemy of church power and delayed entering the Fifth Crusade long enough to entirely miss the action. But he had made a promise to go on a Crusade, and he had to keep the promise. This promise resulted in the Sixth Crusade (1228–29). Frederick II was, however, a very intelligent ruler, as talented in international relations as he was with the sword. He was determined to go on a Crusade in 1228, but before leaving Europe, he was in communication with the Egyptian sultan, al-Kamil, with the offer of a deal. If the Muslim would turn over Jerusalem to the Christians, Frederick II guaranteed a long period of peace. This was important for al-Kamil, who was involved in power battles with other Muslims for control of Syria. For Frederick II such a bloodless victory would be a great boost in his continual fight for dominance in Europe over the Catholic Church.

Matters were largely arranged by letter even before Frederick II set out with his small Crusader force for the Holy Land: Jerusalem would change hands. Still, when it happened, there were those among the Crusaders who were not happy with the arrangement. They thought that Frederick II and the army could have won more from the Muslims, who were at a weak point in 1228. They believed that the emperor could have won back more of the Holy Land if only he had been willing to fight.

Things to Remember While Reading Excerpts about the Sixth Crusade:

  • Frederick II not only was emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1228 when he went on the Sixth Crusade but, through his recent marriage to a fourteen-year-old girl named Yolanda, he also had a claim to become king of Jerusalem and thus make his empire even larger and stronger.
  • When he went on Crusade, Frederick II was twice excommunicated, or expelled, from the Catholic Church for previously failing to go on Crusade, as he had promised.
  • Frederick was opposed in his mission by the patriarch (Eastern Orthodox religious leader) of Jerusalem, Gerold of Valence, who started a campaign against him.
  • Sultan al-Malik al-Kamil had much to gain and little to lose by returning Jerusalem to the Christians. The city's walls had been destroyed not long before, and it was not defensible. It would also be surrounded by Muslims, who could take the city back at any moment. Additionally, two Muslim holy places inside Jerusalem, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, an Islamic place of worship, were left in Muslim hands.
  • Al-Kamil was as good a bargainer as Frederick II. He knew of the difficulties between Frederick and the patriarch and so slowed down talks about a treaty to put the pressure on Frederick. In the end, he gained more than he had hoped. His keeping Muslim shrines inside Jerusalem especially angered the patriarch, Gerold, and made relations between Frederick and the church even worse than before.
  • Frederick II crowned himself king of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem on March 18, 1229, one day before the arrival of a church official, who had been sent by Gerold to stop all religious services in the city.
  • In both the following letters, from Frederick II to Henry III and from the patriarch Gerold to the faithful, al-Kamil is referred to as the "sultan of Babylon." He was, however, at that time the sultan of Egypt and would only later rule Damascus and Babylon.

Excerpt from "Frederick II to Henry III of England"

Frederic, by the grace of God, the august emperor of the Romans, king of Jerusalem and Sicily, to his well-beloved friend, Henry, king of the English, health and sincere affection.

Let all rejoice and exult in the Lord, and let those who are correct in heart glorify Him , who, to make known His power, does not make boast of horses and chariots, but has now gained glory for Himself, in the scarcity of His soldiers, that all may know and understand that He is glorious in His majesty, terrible in His magnificence, and wonderful in His plans on the sons of men, changing seasons at will, and bringing the hearts of different nations together; for in these few days, by a miracle rather than by strength that business has been brought to a conclusion, which for a length of time past many chiefs and rulers of the world amongst the multitude of nations, have never been able till now to accomplish by force, however great, nor by fear.

Not, therefore, to keep you in suspense by a long account, we wish to inform your holiness, that we, firmly putting our trust in God, and believing that Jesus Christ, His Son, in whose service we have so devotedly exposed our bodies and lives, would not abandon us in these unknown and distant countries, but would at least give us wholesome advice and assistance for His honor, praise, and glory, boldly in the name set forth from Acre on the fifteenth day of the month of November last past and arrived safely at Joppa, intending to rebuild the castle at that place with proper strength, that afterwards the approach to the holy city of Jerusalem might be not only easier, but also shorter and more safe for us as well as for all Christians. When, therefore we were, in the confidence of our trust in God, engaged at Joppa, and superintending the building of the castle andthe cause of Christ, as necessity required and as was our duty, and whilst all our pilgrims were busily engaged in these matters, several messengers often passed to and fro between us and the sultan of Babylon; for he and another sultan, called Xaphat, his brother were with a large army at the city of Gaza, distant about one day's journey from us; in another direction, in the city of Sichen, which is commonly called Neapolis, and situated in the plains, the sultan of Damascus his nephew, was staying with an immense number of knights and soldiers also about a day's journey from us and the Christians.

And whilst the treaty was in progress between the parties on either side of the restoration of the Holy Land, at length Jesus Christ, the Son of God, beholding from on high our devoted endurance and patient devotion to His cause, in His merciful compassion of us, at length brought it about that the sultan of Babylon restored to us the holy city, the place where the feet of Christ trod, and where the true worshippers adore the Father in spirit and in truth. But that we may inform you of the particulars of this surrender each as they happened, be it known to you that not only is the body of the aforesaid city restored to us, but also the whole of the country extending from thence to the seacoast near the castle of Joppa, so that for the future pilgrims will have free passage and a safe return to and from the sepulchre ; provided, however, that the Saracens of that part of the country, since they hold the temple in great veneration , may come there as often as they choose in the character of pilgrims, to worship according to their custom, and that we shall henceforth permit them to come, however, only as many as we may choose to allow, and without arms, nor are they to dwell in the city, but outside, and as soon as they have paid their devotions they are to depart.

Moreover, the city of Bethlehem is restored to us, and all the country between Jerusalem and that city; as also the city of Nazareth, and all the country between Acre and that city; the whole of the district of Turon, which is very extensive, and very advantageous to the Christians; the city of Sidon, too, is given up to us with the whole plain and its appurtenances , which will be themore acceptable to the Christians the more advantageous it has till now appeared to be to the Saracens, especially as there is a good harbor there, and from there great quantities of arms and necessaries might be carried to the city of Damascus and often from Damascus to Babylon. And although according to our treaty we are allowed to rebuild the city of Jerusalem in as good a state as it has ever been, and also the castles of Joppa, Cesarea, Sidon, and that of St. Mary of the Teutonic order, which the brothers of that order have begun to build in the mountainous district of Acre, and which it has never been allowed the Christians to do during any former truce; nevertheless the sultan is not allowed, till the end of the truce between him and us, which is agreed on for ten years, to repair or rebuild any fortresses or castles.

And so on Sunday, the eighteenth day of February last past, which is the day on which Christ, the Son of God, rose from dead, and which, in memory of His resurrection , is solemnly cherished and kept holy by all Christians in general throughout the world, this treaty of peace was confirmed by oath between us. Truly then on us and on all does that day seem to have shone favorably, in which the angels sing in praise of God, "Glory to God on high, and on earth peace, and goodwill toward men." And in acknowledgment of such great kindness and of such an honor, which, beyond our deserts and contrary to the opinion of many, God has mercifully conferred on us, to the lasting renown of His compassion, and that in His holy place we might personally offer to Him the burnt offering of our lips, be it known to you that on the seventeenth day of the month of March […], we, in company with all the pilgrims who had with us faithfully followed Christ, the Son of God, entered the holy city of Jerusalem, and after worshipping at the holy sepulchre, we, as being a Catholic emperor, on the following day, wore the crown, which Almighty God provided for us from the throne of His majesty, when of His especial grace, He exalted us on high amongst the princes of the world; so that whilst we have supported the honor of this high dignity, which belongs to us by right of sovereignty, it is more and more evident to all that the hand of the Lord hath done all this; and since His mercies are over all His works, let the worshippers of the orthodox faith henceforth know and relate it far and wide throughout the world, that He, who is blessed for ever, has visited and redeemed His people, and has raised up the horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David.

And before we leave the city of Jerusalem, we have determined magnificently to rebuild it, and its towers and walls, and we intendso to arrange matters that, during our absence, there shall be no less care and diligence used in the business, than if we were present in person. In order that this our present letter may be full of exultation throughout, and so a happy end correspond with its happy beginning, and rejoice your royal mind, we wish it to be known to you our ally, that the said sultan is bound to restore to us all those captives whom he did not in accordance with the treaty made between him and the Christians deliver up at the time when he lost Damietta some time since, and also the others who have been since taken.

Given at the holy city of Jerusalem, on the seventeenth day of the month of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand two hundred and twenty-nine.

Excerpt from "Gerold to All the Faithful"

Gerold, patriarch of Jerusalem, to all the faithful greeting.

If it should be fully known how astonishing, nay rather, deplorable , the conduct of the emperor has been in the eastern lands from beginning to end, to the great detriment of the cause of Jesus Christ and to the great injury of the Christian faith, from the sole of his foot to the top of his head no common sense would be found in him. For he came, excommunicated , without money and followed by scarcely forty knights, and hoped to maintain himself by spoiling the inhabitants of Syria. He first came to Cyprus and there most discourteously seized that nobleman J. [John] of Ibelin and his sons, whom he had invited to his table under pretext of speaking of the affairs of the Holy Land. Next the king, whom he had invited to meet him, he retained almost as a captive. He thus by violence and fraud got possession of the kingdom.

After these achievements he passed over into Syria. Although in the beginning he promised to do marvels, and although in the presence of the foolish he boasted loudly, he immediately sent to the sultan of Babylon [al-Kamil] to demand peace. This conduct rendered him despicable in the eyes of the sultan and his subjects, especially after they had discovered that he was not at the head of a numerous army, which might have to some extent added weight to his words. Under the pretext of defending Joppa, he marched with the Christian army towards that city, in order to be nearer the sultan and in order to be able more easily to treat of peace or obtain a truce. What more shall I say? After long and mysterious conferences, and without having consulted any one who lived in the country, he suddenly announced one day that he had made peace with the sultan.No one saw the text of the peace or truce when the emperor took the oath to observe the articles which were agreed upon. Moreover, you will be able to see clearly how great the malice was and how fraudulent the tenor of certain articles of the truce which we have decided to send to you. The emperor, for giving credit to his word, wished as a guarantee only the word of the sultan, which he obtained. For he said, among other things, that the holy city was surrendered to him.

He went thither with the Christian army on the eve of the Sunday when "Oculi mei" is sung [third Sunday in Lent, or the period before Easter]. The Sunday following, without any fitting ceremony and although excommunicated, in the chapel of the sepulchre of our Lord, to the manifest prejudice of his honor and of the imperial dignity he put the diadem upon his forehead, although the Saracens still held the temple of the Lord and Solomon's temple, and although they proclaimed publicly as before the law of Mohammed to the great confusion and chagrin of the pilgrims.

This same prince, who had previously very often promised to fortify Jerusalem, departed in secrecy from the city at dawn on the following Monday. The Hospitalers and the Templars promised solemnly and earnestly to aid him with all their forces and their advice, if he wanted to fortify the city, as he had promised. But the emperor, who did not care to set affairs right, and who saw that there was no certainty in what had been done, and that the city in the state in which it had been surrendered to him could be neither defended nor fortified, was content with the name of surrender, and on the same day hastened with his family to Joppa. The pilgrims who had entered Jerusalem with the emperor, witnessing his departure, were unwilling to remain behind.

The following Sunday when "Laetare Jerusalem" is sung [fourth Sunday in Lent], he arrived at Acre. There in order to seduce the people and to obtain their favor, he granted them a certain privilege. God knows the motive which made him act thus, and his subsequent conduct will make it known. As, moreover, the passage was near, and as all pilgrims, humble and great, after having visited the Holy Sepulchre, were preparing to withdraw, as if they had accomplished their pilgrimage, because no truce had been concluded with the sultan of Damascus, we, seeing that the holy land was already deserted and abandoned by the pilgrims, in our council formed the plan of retaining soldiers for the common good, by means of the alms given by the king of France of holy memory.

When the emperor heard of this, he said to us that he was astonished at this, since he had concluded a truce with the sultan of Babylon. We replied to him that the knife was still in the wound, since there was not a truce or peace with the sultan of Damascus, nephew of the aforesaid sultan and opposed to him, adding that even if the sultan of Babylon was unwilling, the former could still do us much harm. The emperor replied, saying that no soldiers ought to be retained in his kingdom without his advice and consent, as he was now king of Jerusalem. We answered to that, that in the matter in question, as well as in all of a similar nature, we were very sorry not to be able, without endangering the salvation of our souls, to obey his wishes, because he was excommunicated. The emperor made no response to us, but on the following day he caused the pilgrims who inhabited the city to be assembled outside by the public crier, and by special messengers he also convoked the prelates and the monks.

Addressing them in person, be began to complain bitterly of us, by heaping up false accusations. Then turning his remarks to the venerable master of the Templars he publicly attempted to severely tarnish the reputation of the latter, by various vain speeches, seeking thus to throw upon others the responsibility for his own faults which were now manifest, and adding at last, that we were maintaining troops with the purpose of injuring him. After that he ordered all foreign soldiers, of all nations, if they valued their lives and property, not to remain in the land from that day on, and ordered count Thomas, whom he intended to leave as bailiff of the country, to punish with stripes any one who was found lingering , in order that the punishment of one might serve as an example to many. After doing all this he withdrew, and would listen to no excuse or answers to the charges which he had so shamefully made. He determined immediately to post some crossbowmen at the gates of the city, ordering them to allow the Templars to go out but not to return. Next he fortified with crossbows the churches and other elevated positions and especially those which commanded the communications betweenthe Templars and ourselves. And you may be sure that he never showed as much animosity and hatred against Saracens.

For our part, seeing his manifest wickedness, we assembled all the prelates and all the pilgrims, and menaced with excommunication all those who should aid the emperor with their advice or their services against the Church, the Templars, the other monks of the Holy Land, or the pilgrims.

The emperor was more and more irritated, and immediately caused all the passages to be guarded more strictly, refused to allow any kind of provisions to be brought to us or to the members of our party, and placed everywhere crossbowmen and archers, who attacked severely us, the Templars and the pilgrims. Finally to fill the measure of his malice, he caused some Dominicans and Minorites [Franciscans] who had come on Palm Sunday to the proper places to announce the Word of God, to be torn from the pulpit, to be thrown down and dragged along the ground and whipped throughout the city, as if they had been robbers. Then seeing that he did not obtain what he had hoped from the above-mentioned siege he treated of peace. We replied to him that we would not hear of peace until he sent away the crossbowmen and other troops, until he had returned our property to us, until finally he had restored all things to the condition and freedom in which they were on the day when he entered Jerusalem. He finally ordered what we wanted to be done, but it was not executed. Therefore we placed the city under interdict .

The emperor, realizing that his wickedness could have no success, was unwilling to remain any longer in the country. And, as if he would have liked to ruin everything, he ordered the crossbows and engines of war, which for a long time had been kept at Acre for the defense of the Holy Land, to be secretly carried on his vessels . He also sent away several of them to the sultan of Babylon, as his dear friend. He sent a troop of soldiers to Cyprus to levy heavy contributions of money there, and, what appeared to us more astonishing, he destroyed the galleys which he was unable to take with him. Having learned this, we resolved to reproach him with it, but shunning the remonstrance and the correction, he entered a galley secretly, by an obscure way, on the day of the Apostles St. Philip and St. James, and hastened to reach the island of Cyprus, without saying adieu to any one, leaving Joppa destitute ; and may he never return!

Very soon the bailiffs of the above-mentioned sultan shut off all departure from Jerusalem for the Christian poor and the Syrians, and many pilgrims died thus on the road.

This is what the emperor did, to the detriment of the Holy Land and of his own soul, as well as many other things which are known and which we leave to others to relate. May the merciful God deign to soften the results! Farewell.

Preserving Knowledge

We are able to gain insights into long-ago times because people kept records of what happened. In modern days we call such people historians. In addition to their work, the modern media, such as television and radio, record almost every event that happens. In today's world, some might say that there is too much "history." But in the time of men like Frederick II and the patriarch Gerold, the job of recording events was left mostly to Christian monks, or members of religious orders living in monasteries outside regular society. These monks kept detailed accounts of happenings in the world in works called "chronicles."

Some of the best of these medieval chronicles were kept by monks in one English monastery near London, called Saint Albans. Members of the Benedictine religious order, these monks went in for the big sweep of history. Roger of Wendover, author of the Flores Historiarum ("Flowers of History"), laid out the history of the world from the creation to 1235. It is in his work that Frederick's letter to the king of England is preserved. Another chronicler of Saint Albans, Matthew Paris, wrote a bit later than Roger. His Chronica Majora looks at the history of the world from the Creation up to 1259 and includes the letter of Gerold to the "faithful," or members of the Eastern Orthodox religion. An artist as well as a historian, Matthew illustrated his own manuscripts. The work of these early English historians, or chroniclers, was gathered and edited in the nineteenth century in an enormous publishing project called the Rolls Series, which preserves medieval history for the modern world.

What happened next…

The treaty signed between Frederick II and the sultan al-Kamil gave both sides certain advantages. Yet both the emperor and sultan were surprised by the anger such a treaty caused. The church and other Crusaders complained that Frederick II did not go far enough or that he bargained away his advantage. At the same time, other Muslims were shocked that al-Kamil, who was supposed to be the protector of Islam, would give Jerusalem back to the Christians, even if Islam did keep control of its most important holy sites in the city.

Both leaders survived the storm of criticism, though. Frederick II was forced to return to Italy to protect part of his empire that had come under attack by armies of the pope. He continued to battle the power of the church until his death in 1250. Al-Kamil used the time of truce with the Crusaders to fight his opponents among the Muslims. He took Damascus and secured his power in Syria. Then he became the protector of Islam against a new enemy, the Mongols, who were beginning to invade the region from their home in Central Asia. The sultan al-Kamil died in 1238, tired out from a life of fighting the enemies of Islam.

Jerusalem stayed in Christian hands until it was sacked in 1244 by Turkish Muslims. This, in turn, led to the Seventh Crusade (1248–54), the last of the large-scale military adventures by Crusaders in the Middle East. Frederick II changed the way Europeans thought about the Crusades. If he could win by diplomacy, or negotiation, what others had failed to win by war, what was the purpose of fighting? This question took some of the enthusiasm out of the Crusader movement.

Did you know…

  • Frederick II actually used his Crusader army in the Sixth Crusade not against the Muslims but to bully the Christians in the Holy Land to support him as king of Jerusalem. Some historians say that Frederick's goal was not the conquest of Muslim-held territories in Palestine but the takeover of the Crusader states there.
  • Frederick II was one of the best-educated emperors of the day. He was a fan of Islamic scholarship and art, having grown up in Sicily, where Arabs had once been in power. He was nicknamed "Wonder of the World," founded a university, organized his government along modern models, and was himself an amateur scientist.
  • Frederick II shocked the Christian faithful in Jerusalem by visiting Muslim shrines.
  • At the time of the Sixth Crusade a new enemy to both Christians and Muslims was sweeping down from the north into the Middle East. The Mongols, a nomadic warrior tribe, conquered northern China in 1212 and had become the rulers of Central Asia by 1222. In the 1230s they occupied Russia, Ukraine, Poland, and Hungary. Both Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East were next on their agenda.

Consider the following…

  • Who do you think was the real winner of the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II or al-Kamil? Why?
  • If important issues, such as the handover of Jerusalem to the Christians in the Sixth Crusade, could be solved without bloodshed, why do you think the wars continued between Christians and Muslims during the Crusades?
  • Discuss some reasons why the Crusader states in the Holy Land might not have been behind Frederick II and his Sixth Crusade.

August: Inspiring respect.

Exult: Triumph, express joy.

Him: God, referred to by the capitalized third-person singular masculine pronoun.

Whilst: While.

Pilgrims: Religious visitors or travelers.

Sultan: Ruler, leader.

Aforesaid: Mentioned before.

Sepulchre: Tomb, burial place; in this case the tomb of Jesus Christ in Jerusalem.

Saracens: Term used by Europeans for all Muslims.

Veneration: Respect or reverence.

Henceforth: From now on.

Appurtenances: Attachments, connected areas.

Resurrection: Rising from the dead or being reborn.

Deserts: That which is deserved or owing.

Conferred: Granted, awarded.

Renown: Fame, recognition.

Burnt offering: A sacrifice to God, often an animal, burned at an altar; here used to mean words of praise.

Exalted: Praised, raised in rank.

Orthodox faith: True religion, here referring to Christianity.

Exultation: Triumph, great joy.

Accordance: Conforming with.

Patriarch: One of the four main religious leaders of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Nay: No.

Deplorable: Very bad.

Detriment: Negative effect.

Excommunicated: Expelled from the church.

Spoiling: Plundering, stealing from.

Pretext: A false reason.

Rendered: Made.

Despicable: Hated, beneath contempt.

Articles: Terms, conditions (of the truce).

Malice: Ill will.

Fraudulent: Fake.

Tenor: General meaning.

Thither: In that direction, to that place.

Manifest: Obvious.

Diadem: Crown.

Saracens: Christian term for Muslims.

Chagrin: Sorrow and shame.

Hospitalers/Hospitallers and the Templars: Fighting orders of the church.

Seduce: Persuade to do something.

Alms: Donated money.

Convoked: Called together.

Prelates: High religious officials.

Venerable: Respected.

Tarnish: Damage.

Bailiff: Sheriff.

Stripes: Lashes of the whip.

Lingering: Remaining behind.

Crossbowmen: Soldiers equipped with crossbows, a medieval weapon.

Manifast Clear; obvious.

Menaced: Threatened.

Dominicans and Minorites: Catholic religious orders or groups.

Palm Sunday: The Sunday before Easter.

Interdict: A church censure, or official decree of disapproval.

Vessels: Ships.

Levy: Collect, as a tax.

Galleys: Ships with sails.

Reproach: Express disapproval of.

Remonstrance: Words of protest.

Obscure: Hidden.

Destitute: Poor, needyDetriment: Harm.

Deign: Consent, agree.

For More Information


Hindley, Geoffrey. The Crusades: A History of Armed Pilgrimage and Holy War. London: Constable, 2003.

Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Munro, Dana C., trans. "Letters of the Crusades." Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1896.

Powell, James M. Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213–1221. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

Roger of Wendover. Liber qui dictiur Flores Historiarum ab anno Domini MCLIV annoque Henrici Anglorum regis Secundi primo. Edited by H. G. Hewlett. 3 vols. London: Rolls Series, 1886–1889.

Web Sites

"The Crusades." The ORB: On-line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. (accessed on August 3, 2004).

Fordham University. "Frederick II's Crusade: Letters, 1229." Internet Medieval Sourcebook. (accessed on August 3, 2004).

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The Gentle Art of Diplomacy

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