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Cum universi

Cum universi, 1192. The papal bull Cum universi, issued by Celestine III, confirmed the independence of the Scottish church, declared by the bull Super anxietatibus of 1176, resisting in particular claims of the archbishop of York. It was repeated by Pope Innocent III in 1200 and by Honorius in 1218. The Scottish church was said to be ‘subject to the apostolic see, as a special daughter, with no intermediary’.

J. A. Cannon

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