Chosin Reservoir, Battle of the
On 24 November, MacArthur began an “end‐the‐war” attack to the Yalu. Days later, a massive Chinese counteroffensive erupted. The First Marine Division, its 5th and 7th Regiments now at Yudam‐ni north of the reservoir, was ordered to shift its attack to the west to shore up the collapsed right flank of the Eighth Army. Overwhelming Chinese forces quickly brought the Marine advance to a halt. Temperatures had dropped to −25° Fahrenheit.
The 1st Marines, the division's third infantry regiment, held positions in battalion strength at Hagaru‐ri, Koto‐ri, and Chinhung‐ni along the only road leading south from Yudam‐ni. Maj. Gen. Oliver P. Smith, the division commander, pulled the 5th and 7th Marines back to Hagaru‐ri. The breakout from there began on 6 December. Immeasurably helped by close air support and aerial resupply, the division reached Hungnam six days later. Of the some 15,000 Marines engaged, 4,400 were battle casualties. Almost all the Marines suffered some degree of frostbite. The Chinese had lost perhaps 25,000 dead and did not oppose the evacuation of Hungnam by X Corps, which was accomplished by Christmas.
Lynn Montross and and Nicholas A. Canzona , The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, 1957.
Roy E. Appleman , Escaping the Trap, 1990.
Edwin Howard Simmons
"Chosin Reservoir, Battle of the." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 23, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chosin-reservoir-battle
"Chosin Reservoir, Battle of the." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved February 23, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chosin-reservoir-battle
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.