TAMMANY SOCIETIES. Organizations patterned after the New York and Philadelphia Tammany societies appeared in several states about 1810. Originally founded as fraternal organizations, Tammany societies quickly evolved into political machines that controlled local elections and offices. Rhode Island politics were controlled by a local Tammany society in 1810–11; an Ohio society played an active part in the factional struggles of Republicans in 1810–12. The first Ohio "wigwam" was authorized by a dispensation from Michael Leib, grand sachem of the Philadelphia society, although there is little other evidence of any central organization. The constitution and ritual were those of a patriotic fraternal order of a democratic character.
Mushkat, Jerome. Tammany: The Evolution of a Political Machine, 1789–1865. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
Utter, William Thomas. Ohio Politics and Politicians, 1802–1815. New York, 1929.
Eugene H.Roseboom/a. g.