BRICKER AMENDMENT to the U.S. Constitution was introduced in January 1953 by Senator John W. Bricker of Ohio, a former governor of his state and the Republican vice presidential nominee in 1944. According to the original bill, no part of any treaty that overrode the Constitution would be binding upon Americans, treaties would become law only "through legislation which would be valid in the absence of a treaty," and Congress would have the same restrictions upon presidential executive agreements that it did upon treaties. Cosponsored by some sixty-four senators, the amendment reflected their abhorrence over Franklin Roosevelt's foreign policy, the possible prerogatives of the United Nations, and fears that U.S. armed forces overseas could be tried in foreign courts. Frank E. Holman, president of the American Bar Association in 1948 and 1949 and a Seattle attorney, drafted the legislation.
In the course of a year the amendment underwent several versions, with Senators Arthur Watkins (Republican from Utah) and Walter George (Democrat from Georgia) offering drafts favored by the more isolationist faction and Senators William F. Knowland (Republican from California) and Homer Ferguson (Republican from Michigan) offering renderings endorsed by the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower. In February 1954 the Senate defeated the amendment by one vote. It was never resubmitted, and after Bricker failed to be reelected in 1958, the issue was dropped.
Koo, Youngnok. "Dissenters from American Involvement in World Affairs: A Political Analysis of the Bricker Amendment." Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1966.
Tananbaum, Duane. The Bricker Amendment Controversy: A Test of Eisenhower's Political Leadership. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988.
"Bricker Amendment." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bricker-amendment
"Bricker Amendment." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved September 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bricker-amendment
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.