Berlin, Treaty of
BERLIN, TREATY OF
BERLIN, TREATY OF. After the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles in March 1920, the United States and Germany remained technically in a state of war. After taking power in March 1921, the Warren G. Harding administration conducted direct negotiations with Germany to arrive at a separate peace treaty. In August the two nations agreed to a formal peace treaty, which they signed in Berlin. The Treaty of Berlin was unique because, as an index treaty, it had no distinct provisions of its own. Rather, it comprised a scaled-down version of the Treaty of Versailles, including its provisions with respect to colonies, disarmament, reparations, and responsibility for the war. The most important features of the Treaty of Versailles that the Berlin treaty excluded were the League of Nations, the International Labor Organization, and the boundaries provisions. Approximately two-thirds of the Treaty of Versailles, including its harshest provisions, was accepted by the United States through the Treaty of Berlin.
Hoff, Joan. American Business and Foreign Policy, 1920–1933. Boston: Beacon Press, 1973.
Clarence A.Berdahl/a. g.