Robinson, Jackie (1919–1972)
Jackie Robinson (1919–1972)
In 1947, Jackie Robinson broke the "color barrier" in baseball (see entry under 1900s—Sports and Games in volume 1), becoming the first African American to play in the major leagues. His aggressive baserunning and timely hitting helped lead the Brooklyn Dodgers to a world championship in 1955. He was inducted into the baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.
A native of Cairo, Georgia, Robinson began his baseball career in the Negro Leagues (see entry under 1900s—Sports and Games in volume 1). There he drew the attention of Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey (1881–1965), who signed him to a minor league contract in 1945. When Robinson made it to the majors two years later, he faced taunts and discrimination, even death threats, from hostile fans opposed to integration (the bringing together of different races). To his credit, Robinson rose above these threats and became one of the game's leading base stealers and clutch hitters (batters who do well in tense situations). He retired after ten years of playing and continued to speak out about racism in America until his death in 1972. In 1997, baseball decided to honor Robinson by "retiring" his uniform number "42" across the sport (no player could wear that number).
—Robert E. Schnakenberg
For More Information
Rampersand, Arnold. Jackie Robinson: A Biography. New York: Knopf, 1997.
Shatzkin, Mike. The Ballplayers: Baseball's Ultimate Biographical Reference. New York: Arbor House/William Morrow, 1990.
"Robinson, Jackie (1919–1972)." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/culture-magazines/robinson-jackie-1919-1972
"Robinson, Jackie (1919–1972)." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. . Retrieved November 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/culture-magazines/robinson-jackie-1919-1972
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.