Duvalier, ‘Papa Doc’

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Duvalier, ‘Papa Doc’ ( François) (1907–71) President of Haiti (1957–71). He declared himself president-for-life and relied on the feared Tonton Macoutes, a vigilante group, to consolidate his rule. Under his ruthless regime, the longest in Haiti's history, the country's economy severely declined. He was succeeded by his son ‘Baby Doc’ Duvalier.