Skip to main content

Bulk Density

Bulk density

The mass of soil per unit bulk volume. The bulk volume consists of mineral and organic materials, water, and air. Bulk density is affected by external pressures (e.g., weight of tractors and harvesting equipment, mechanical pressures from cultivation machines), and by internal pressures (e.g., swelling and shrinking due to water-content changes, freezing and thawing, and by plant roots). The bulk density of cultivated mineral soils ranges from 11.6 mg/m3.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bulk Density." Environmental Encyclopedia. . 21 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Bulk Density." Environmental Encyclopedia. . (February 21, 2019).

"Bulk Density." Environmental Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 21, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.