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Recreating the Dream of All Nations

Chapter 5
Recreating the Dream of All Nations

1. Site Selection

2. Planning Concept

3. Planned Structure

4. Layout of Blocks and Areas

5. Public Service Facilities

6. Park Management Facilities

7. Operating Facilities

8. Franchise Facilities

9. Safety Facilities

10. Open Space and Greenbelts

11. Transportation

12. Accommodation for Working Personnel

13. Construction of the World Expo Halls

The World Expo IS an international exhibition with a long history and far-reaching influence. It is a true record of the development of human civilization, and the desires and hopes of humanity for a better life in the future. One hundred and fifty years have gone by since the Works of Industry of All Nations exposition was held in London, U.K. in 1851. In 2010, the World Expo will be held in China for the first time. The expo will be a rare historical opportunity for Shanghai, China, and all Chinese people.

To facilitate the preparation for the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, the Chinese government established an organizational system consisting of the Organizing Committee, Executive Committee, and the Bureau of World Expo Coordination.

As the leading department of the Shanghai World Expo, the Organizing Committee is made up of 26 member organizations from the relevant departments of the Central Government and the Shanghai Municipal Government, with the Vice Premier of the State Council as the Commissioner. The main responsibilities of the Organizing Committee will be: to coordinate the drafting and implementation of relevant laws, regulations, and policies; to coordinate and promote the participation in the exposition by various regions of China and relevant departments of the Central Government; to extend the Chinese government's invitation to various governments and relevant international organizations; to make resolutions and decisions on all major issues during the preparation and hosting of the expo; and to determine and confirm the Commissioner-General of the Chinese government for the Shanghai Expo. The committee's daily liaison and coordination will be undertaken by the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade.

The Executive Committee is the executive body of the Organizing Committee, consisting of 42 member organizations from the relevant departments of the Shanghai Municipal Government. A key leader from Shanghai acts as the Director of the Executive Committee. The main responsibilities of the committee are: to carry out the relevant resolutions and decisions made by the Organizing Committee, under the leadership of the Organizing Committee; to report to the Organizing Committee regularly with regards to the relevant state of affairs; to highlight and report problems that crop up during the preparatory process; to guide and assist relevant departments in Shanghai in carrying out their work; and to handle all other jobs assigned by the Organizing Committee.

As per relevant BIE regulations, the Chinese government will appoint a Commissioner-General for the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, who will, on behalf of the government of the host country, handle issues relating to the World Expo, and communicate with the governments of participating countries and international organizations regarding major issues concerning the Shanghai World Expo.

Established on October 30, 2003, the Bureau of Shanghai World Expo Coordination (hereinafter called Coordination Bureau) is the organizer of the World Expo. Under the leadership of the Organizing Committee and the Executive Committee, the bureau will be responsible for the expo's actual preparation, organization, operation, and management. Its major responsibilities are: to undertake the daily work of the Executive Committee of Shanghai World Expo on decision-making and coordination; to take charge of the daily organization and management regarding the preparation for the Shanghai World Expo; to organize and coordinate external cooperation and exchange relating to the Shanghai World Expo; and to undertake the operation of the Shanghai World Expo. The bureau has set up the following departments:

Office
General Planning Department
Theme Elaboration Department
Activity Planning Department
International Exhibition Participation Department
Domestic Exhibition Participation Department
Market Development Department
Planning and Coordination Department
Media and Public Relations Department
General Accounting Department
Human Resources Department
Legal Affairs Department
China Exhibition Hall Department
Operations Department
City Planning Department
Supervision and Audit Department

At the same time, the Bureau of Shanghai World Expo formed a team of Chief Planners and a team of Chief Designers. The team of Chief Planners will be responsible for planning and design in the Shanghai World Expo premises and other related areas. The team of Chief Designers will design exhibitions, activities, and forums related to the expo.

To better assist in the work of the Coordination Bureau, the Shanghai Municipal Government has established two companies: namely, Shanghai World Expo Land Reserve Center and Shanghai World Expo Group. The former will be responsible for raising funds for land development, apart from government investment, relocating the residents and enterprises currently within the planned expo area, constructing infrastructure within the same area, constructing affiliated facilities inside and outside the World Expo Park, building lease halls and joint halls, including the reconstruction of current buildings, and ensuring the subsequent utilization of the land in the World Expo Park according to the Master Development Plan of the Shanghai Municipal Government.

The Shanghai World Expo Group is mainly responsible for raising funds for hosting the World Expo, apart from government investment, building public facilities like the theme halls, the Convention Center and the Performance Center, managing the construction and operation of the World Expo Village, constructing service facilities within the World Expo premises, providing organizers and exhibitors with (non-monopolized) services in human resources, hall construction and arrangement, and property management during the expo.

1. Site Selection

The site of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo is situated along the banks of the Huangpu River in the city area of Shanghai between the Nanpu Bridge and the Lupu Bridge. The planned land area of the World Expo Park is 5.28 square kilometers, of which 3.93 square kilometers are located in Pudong, and 1.35 square kilometers in Puxi. The fenced-in area will be approximately 3.22 square kilometers.

The site for the 2010 Shanghai World Expo has been selected based on the following four considerations:

(1) Giving a better expression to the expo theme Better City, Better Life. Huangpu River is the “mother river” of Shanghai, and is also one of the birthplaces of China's national industry. The historical traces of the urban development of Shanghai are preserved along the river, and important urban spaces like Laochengxiang, the Bund, and Lujiazui epitomize the historical urban development of Shanghai. The expo site is rich in historical meanings and full of scenic value, and is therefore able to fully reflect the theme Better City, Better Life.

(2) Increasing the operating efficiency of the World Expo. Located in the city center where transport is convenient, the expo site can make full use of existing service facilities, including hotels, commercial outlets, restaurants, cultural, and entertainment facilities. Redundant investment is thus avoided.

(3) The Shanghai World Expo Park is located where the city's old industry concentrated. According to the “Master Development Plan of Shanghai Municipality: 1999–2020,” the expo site is the key area for integrated development on both sides of the Huangpu River. As a major event in Shanghai's urban development, the World Expo will promote the full-range revitalization of the surrounding area, including historical preservation, economic transformation, and environmental improvement.

(4) Closely integrating the site selection for the Shanghai World Expo with the plan for the comprehensive development of both banks of the Huangpu River. This will ensure the post-expo use of the facilities. Only with planned integration can the city enjoy long-term benefits, and provide resources for its sustainable development.

2. Planning Concept

The 2010 Shanghai World Expo proposes “harmony” as the concept for urban development, including harmony between man and man, between man and nature, between history and the future. The purpose is to create favorable conditions for the sustainable development of society and the economy. Effort will be put into the planning and layout of the World Expo site to create a harmonious city.

  • Showing harmony between man and nature: the planned expo site takes the waterfront of the Huangpu River as the core space, and also incorporates the square and functional axis into the green network through great belts and wedges.
  • Showing harmony between past and future: the historical and industrial buildings on the site will be effectively preserved and put into use during and after the expo.
  • Showing harmony between man and man: the Shanghai World Expo will offer a venue of dialogue for cities from all over the world. It will also be a stage to celebrate the century of cities. The dialogue and celebration will not be limited to the exhibition space, but will penetrate every corner of the expo site and the hosting city. Through advanced information media technology, it will expand to an even larger area, so that the sound of human harmony can be heard across the world.

At the same time, the six-month expo will exert profound influence on the long-term development of Shanghai by improving its urban functions, integrating its urban spaces, and building its image. The expo will provide an ideal platform for Shanghai to become an international trade center and a hub for international cultural exchange. It will also become a strategic node to integrate the urban space on both sides of the Huangpu River, and contribute to the formation of a core part within the network of urban images.

3. Planned Structure

The Shanghai World Expo planning takes into consideration the following factors: the suitable walking distance, the dimensions of the human body, and the visitors' knowledge level. With this in mind, a five-level structural arrangement is proposed, namely: park, area, block, group, and cluster:

Park: The planned area for constructing the World Expo Park, including the land for the fenced-in area and the affiliated facilities outside the fenced-in area, totals 5.28 square kilometers, of which 3.93 square kilometers are in Pudong and 1.35 square kilometers in Puxi;

Area: The fenced-in area of the World Expo is 3.22 square kilometers, of which 2.47 square kilometers is in Pudong and 0.75 square kilometers in Puxi;

Block: There will be five functional blocks: A, B, C, D, and E, with an average land area of 60 hectares;

Group: There will be 12 groups of exhibition halls with an average land area of 10–15 hectares, including eight groups in Pudong and four in Puxi;

Cluster: There will be 26 clusters of exhibition halls with an average land area of two to three hectares. Each cluster can have 40–45 exhibition units, and the total floor area of each cluster is 2–2.5 square meters. In accordance with the principle of convenience and easy access, each cluster will be equipped with such service facilities as restaurants, shops, telecommunications devices, toilets, as well as special facilities for mothers and babies.

The National Halls will be allocated and decorated by the geographical locations of their continents of origin, with a cluster of exhibition halls as the basic unit. They will be divided into three categories: (1) self-constructed halls, (2) leased halls, and (3) joint halls provided to developing countries free of charge.

A basic exhibition unit for the first category will be delimited by a land area of 500 square meters. An exhibitor can apply for two to 12 units, to design and construct its hall independently. The maximum area for an exhibition hall shall not exceed 6,000 square meters.

A basic exhibition unit of the second category is to be delimited by a land area of 500 square meters. The organizer will provide leased halls for exhibitors to choose from. Each exhibitor is allowed to apply for a maximum of four units for exhibition purposes.

The third category refers to joint exhibition halls provided to developing countries free of charge.

According to the BIE regulations and the practice of past World Expos, all the national halls for foreign countries shall be temporary buildings.

4. Layout of Blocks and Areas

In line with the needs for hosting the expo and organizing the exhibition, the layout and the scale of the main exhibition halls in the World Expo Park have been optimized within the framework of urban design. The construction area of all exhibition halls in the park totals 850,000 square meters (including the Center for Public Activities and the Performance Center).

Of this, the areas for the five major halls are: 100,000 square meters for the Center for Public Activities (Convention Center), 45,000 square meters for the Performance Center, 50,000 square meters for the China Hall, 45,000 square meters for the Theme Hall, and about 12,000 square meters for the World Expo Hall.

The total construction area of the National Halls for foreign countries in Pudong is 326,000 square meters, the International Organization Halls 24,000 square meters, and the total construction area of the Corporate Halls in Puxi is 140,000 square meters.

The total construction area of exhibition halls is about 850,000 square meters. The exhibition halls in Pudong have been designed to accommodate more than 160 exhibition booths for participating countries. About 20 booths for international organizations, and about 30 Corporate Halls have been allocated to Puxi.

The land area for Block A is 54.9 hectares, taken up mostly by the China Hall and National Halls for foreign countries (including independent self-built halls, independent leased halls, and joint halls). The China Hall will be built around the Riverside Oasis and Theme Square and arranged by such themes as Millennium Capital, Silk Road, Beginning of the Century, and Future China. All provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, as well as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan will get together in the hall with a total construction area of approximately 45,000 square meters. As for the National Halls for other countries, Asian and Oceania National Halls will be set up.

The land area for Block B is 87.8 hectares, including the Theme Hall, the Center for Public Activities, the Performance Center, and other buildings.

The Theme Hall and the Center for Public Activities are to be built west of the World Expo axis. The Theme Hall is the main exhibition hall where the expo theme will be presented. During the expo, the hall will be integrated with the square located at the northern tip of the World Expo axis, with a total construction area of approximately 80,000 square meters. This will be where the opening ceremony, closing ceremony, and other large-scale activities will be held. The hall will be a temporary building. The Center for Public Activities will be located near the rail transport hub, with a construction area of approximately 80,000 square meters. During the expo, it will be used for holding large-scale activities, conferences, and VIP receptions. A news center will also be set up here to hold press conferences and news release conferences. The Performance Center, with a floor area of about 45,000 square meters, will have several theaters that can accommodate 500 to 3,000 visitors. It will be the venue for cultural exchange between participating countries.

Large public greenbelts and gardens will be built along the waterfront to form a riverside open space.

The land area of Block C is 104.3 hectares. According to the plan, this block will be designated for building National Halls for foreign countries (including exhibition halls of the above three categories) and International Organization Halls. Here European, American, and African National Halls will be set up. To complement the plan of building squares for public activities between groups and clusters, a large amusement park of about ten hectares will be built at the entrance.

The land area for Block D in Puxi is 49.7 hectares. It is where China's modern national industry was born. The Jiangnan Shipyard was established here in 1865. Many old industrial buildings and facilities have been preserved. In order to carry on with urban industrial development, and maintain the historical characteristics of this group of buildings, it will be rebuilt and redesigned as Corporate Halls with a total land area of about 90,000 square meters. On its eastern side, the old docks and slipways, which are rich in historical value, will be used as outdoor public exhibition areas and places for cultural exchange.

The land for Block E in Puxi covers an area of 25.1 hectares. Independent Corporate Halls will be built here, with a total floor area of about 120,000 square meters.

To uphold the spirit of the World Expo and promote international cultural exchange, the World Expo Museum, with an area of about 120,000 square meters, will be built on the eastern side of the World Expo axis in Puxi through restructuring the large workshops standing there. Cultural masterpieces of different periods from all over the world will be put on show here. When the World Expo is over, the museum will become a world-class center for cultural and exhibition research.

5. Public Service Facilities

There will be two types of public service facilities in the layout: a concentrated layout and a dispersed one. The concentrated area will include the east-west sight-viewing pedestrian route running through Pudong, the peripheral area of the square, and the central area of Puxi. In addition, some public service facilities will be distributed evenly in various exhibition areas, as well as at the entrances and exits. These service facilities include the park management facilities, operating facilities, franchise facilities, and others. The floor area of restaurants and shopping facilities is about 100,000 square meters, and the floor area of management facilities and other affiliated facilities comes to about 60,000 square meters. A detailed breakdown of the services is as follows:

6. Park Management Facilities

The management facilities of the World Expo include administration, VIP reception, news center, and warehouse facilities. Administration facilities and the news center are located in Block B in Pudong. Warehouse facilities are distributed in various blocks, in close proximity to corresponding entrances and exits. There is one VIP reception facility in Pudong and Puxi respectively, both situated on the west side of the World Expo axis and connected to the special passageway (entrance and exit) for VIPs.

7. Operating Facilities

The operating facilities include the information center, fire control and disaster rescue, first-aid and medical treatment, sanitation, volunteer service stations, and food health facilities. Apart from various control centers concentrated in one area, other service facilities will be distributed in various blocks according to the radius of service.

8. Franchise Facilities

Franchise facilities, including restaurants and shopping facilities, will be distributed in a combination of concentrated and dispersed layouts. The concentrated areas include the sight-viewing pedestrian route, the peripheral area of the square, and the central area of Puxi, while others will be distributed in different groups of exhibition halls.

Restaurants are divided into various types and styles. The major types include traditional restaurants, buffet restaurants, and fast food restaurants, while the main styles refer to those restaurants located in different national halls, offering a variety of cuisines.

Shopping facilities are divided into two categories: shops which sell World Expo souvenirs; and convenience stores, vending machines, and movable booths.

9. Safety Facilities

The safety system within the World Expo Park is designed professionally. The personal safety of all visitors to the World Expo is to be ensured through detailed preventive tactics, strict management measures, and solid technical support. The security measures to be adopted will guarantee absolute safety for heads of Chinese and foreign governments gracing the expo. They will also provide effective crowd control and see to it that the opening and closing ceremonies, conferences, and other major activities are conducted safely and smoothly. The safety system is also designed to prevent serious terrorist events and criminal cases that will jeopardize the exhibition halls, exhibits, exhibitors, and visitors. Efforts will also be made to prevent all sorts of security threats, safety hazards, disasters, and accidents within the premises of the World Expo site, and take precautions against all natural disasters. For this a disaster warning system will be put into place.

According to the requirements of the master plan of the World Expo, the security system will consist of the World Expo Safety Protection Center and relevant work sites. A security management system, a preventive safety system, and a technical security system are to be put into place in line with the expo security task.

During the World Expo, other service facilities that will be provided include functional service facilities and assistance facilities.

Functional service facilities will be distributed evenly among groups and clusters of exhibition halls, including information services, enquiry services, lockers, postal offices, courier services, ATMs, foreign currency exchange, telephones, toilets, drinking water points, dustbins, and smoking areas. The service radius of information service centers and large electronic information display facilities will be about 300 meters, and the service radius of ATMs about 250 meters. In addition, telephones and toilets will be distributed evenly with a service radius of 100 meters.

Assistance facilities can be divided into two categories, namely, special assistance facilities and emergency assistance facilities. Special assistance facilities will provide special assistance for six categories of visitors: the old, the weak, the sick, the disabled, the pregnant, and children. Facilities for rental and services include wheelchairs, baby strollers, childcare, and lost and found services. Emergency assistance facilities include guard posts, police centers, medical aid centers, first-aid stations, and a space for takeoff and landing of helicopters for medical emergency purposes.

In addition, the communication issue at the site of the World Expo will be solved through a combination of permanent base stations and temporary facilities.

10. Open Space and Greenbelts

The Huangpu River will become the hub for the open space. The open space and the greenbelts within the fenced-in area of the World Expo include the riverside oasis on both sides of the Huangpu River, the World Expo axis, the riverside greenbelts, the green wedges, the World Expo Square, other squares, and the sight-viewing pedestrian route. They form a continuous space network that runs through different blocks, leading to the waterfront of the Huangpu River and connecting with entrances and exits. This will be a multifunctional space network that can work as a pedestrian passageway, meeting points, scenic spots, and ecological corridors. In addition, large greenbelts will be built as emergency buffers near the main entrances of the fenced-in area.

In line with the urban cultural development of Shanghai and the overall structure of the World Expo Park, more than ten World Expo symbolic statues will be put up in different landmark spaces. At the same time, statues reflecting the cultures of participating countries will also be erected in the small leisure greenbelts between groups and clusters of exhibition halls.

The ecological greenbelt system, whose features find a perfect summary in “water and green blending into one,” will be integrated into the public space and exhibition halls along the banks of Huangpu River, as well as the peripheral environment of the World Expo.

In line with the expo theme—Better City, Better Life—new urban ecotechnologies and energy-efficient facilities will also be included in the plan.

Main spaces for public activities include the World Expo Square, the World Expo axis, and other squares. A group of squares will be built on the site, linked up by sight-viewing pedestrian routes. These squares can be used partially as outdoor exhibition sites, which can be arranged and decorated as per exhibitors' requirements.

In space arrangement, two band-like squares will link up the exhibition halls within the World Expo Park, while vast block-like squares will accommodate visitor flows and gatherings. This will be in tandem with the surrounding exhibition halls, fulfilling the need for urban landscaping, and facilitating visitors' activities in the park.

Located west of the China Hall and facing the Huangpu River, the World Expo Square will be the site for holding major functions, such as the opening and closing ceremonies, and reception of government officials. The World Expo axis, which runs through the fenced-in area of the World Expo in Pudong and Puxi, will be the place for holding galas.

The sight-viewing pedestrian routes and the group of squares in the park occupy a total land area of about 30 hectares, with an average area between two to five square hectares per square. Distributed evenly in various blocks are multi-purpose open spaces which can be used as visitor service centers, outdoor exhibition sites, or venues for performances, rallies, and other celebratory activities aiming to promote cultural exchange.

Independent exhibition halls are arranged in a compact manner, with exits and entrances reasonably distributed so as to reduce the walking distance of visitors. Some exhibition halls are built on stilts to provide shaded space for queuing visitors. The space surrounding the exhibition halls form squares.

The area for interactive experience is located north of the Bansongyuan Road in Puxi. It extends to the Baotun Road in the west and to the Miaojiang Road in the east, covering an area of about ten hectares. It will be built into a cultural community that integrates residence with art conception and production, as well as cultural exchange.

11. Transportation

The transport facilities for the Shanghai World Expo will be designed on the basis of an estimated total passenger flow of about 70 million, with the average passenger flow on an ordinary day, busy day, and extremely busy day at 400,000, 600,000, and 800,000 respectively.

The estimated ratio of expo visitors from Shanghai, the Yangtze River Delta, other parts of China, and foreign countries will be 20:30:45:5. Approximately 50% of the passengers will take rail transport, 35–40% ground public transport (special-route bus, tourist bus, and regular bus), about 5% water transport, and 5–10% other forms of transport (VIP, walking, and bicycles). The passenger flow during peak periods is estimated to be 150,000 per hour. Therefore, the passenger capacity of airports, railway stations, and long-distance highway passenger stations must be increased. Connection between external transport facilities and the World Expo site will be strengthened through rail transport and dedicated public transport lines.

Rail transport Lines 4, 6, 7, and 8 running through the expo site and the peripheral area will go into operation by 2010. Line 13 will also be extended to include the expo area.

Shanghai will restrict private transport during the expo. Interchanges will be built near the outer and middle loop lines to transfer people from private transport to public transport heading for the expo site. In addition, special entrances will be opened to allow waterway transport to the site of the World Expo.

There will be visitor routes, goods routes, emergency routes, and VIP routes within the fenced-in area. In Pudong and Puxi, east-west roads will be built to link the entire World Expo Park; loop roads will also be laid between the groups or clusters of exhibition halls. The road network within the park will be planned so that pedestrians and vehicles are separated, and major and minor trunk roads alternate with one another.

In Pudong and Puxi, loop lines for public transport run through various functional blocks. Visitors can reach the Center for Public Activities and exhibition halls on foot or by public transport. To provide comfortable and convenient public transport services for visitors, the distance between bus stops is limited within 300 meters. The location of bus stops is determined according to the layout and planning of the exhibition halls and major pedestrian passageways.

The transport routes for goods and emergency vehicles should be separated from those for visitors transport. East-west roads will be laid in Pudong and Puxi for goods transport and emergency vehicles. These routes will be directly connected to functional blocks and corresponding entrances and exits, so as to ensure fast and convenient access to vehicles for fire control, first aid, and other vehicles in times of emergency. Logistics transport will be limited to nighttime every day after the World Expo Park closes. The park layout also includes a space for helicopters to take off and land to satisfy special transport needs.

The transport route for VIPs will be separated from other transport routes, and independent entrances and exits will be set up in Pudong and Puxi, so as to ensure the fast and safe entry and exit of VIPs.

The reasonable distribution of visitors at the entrance and exit will be achieved through ticket management. Visitors will also be provided with a tour guide containing route information based on the duration of their visits, ranging from one day to several days, so as to achieve a reasonable and orderly distribution of visitors in the park area. There will also be an intelligent management system within the World Expo Park to provide visitors with real-time exhibition information.

Three main and two secondary entrances and exits will be set up in Pudong in connection with the trunk roads, rail transport lines, and location of stations in the area surrounding the expo site in order to evenly distribute traffic. One main and two secondary entrances and exits will also be set up in Puxi. In addition, three waterway entrances and exits will be built on both sides of the Huangpu River.

Enough passageways for ticket checking and safety inspection will be provided at various entrances and exits to reduce the waiting time of visitors.

According to the park layout, corresponding entrances and exits will also be provided for various vehicles needed by the expo operation, including VIP vehicles, vehicles for logistics, sanitation, safety, first aid, fire control, and other purposes. In addition, special entrances and exits will also be provided for the World Expo special buses. In order to ease possible traffic jams at the entrances and exits to the World Expo Park, visitors can buy tickets at designated places in the city and take special-route buses toward the fenced-in expo area.

A continuous pedestrian system will be planned to connect different exhibition areas. This system and the vehicle system will be arranged so that pedestrians are separated from vehicles.

As for the east-west pedestrian system, a sight-viewing pedestrian route will be built in the central part of the exhibition area to connect different functional groups and clusters of exhibition halls. This will become the most important pedestrian route. It will also be connected to the riverside pedestrian system along the north-south green space perpendicular to the Huangpu River.

The north-south pedestrian system is made up of squares connected at the various major and minor entrances and exits. It leads visitors to the riverside area via the green space perpendicular to the Huangpu River.

The pedestrian system is linked up with bus interchanges within the park to provide convenience for visitors using bus transport.

As per the planned layout, 15 special parking lots will be set up near the entrances and exits of the fenced-in area. Covering an area of nearly 40 hectares, they will be able to accommodate up to 4,000 buses. In addition, in line with the underground space development, standard parking lots for about 1,500 cars will be built on the underground floors of permanent buildings.

The parking lots for taxis and private cars will be provided along the periphery of the World Expo Park to ease the traffic. Shuttle routes will be used to bring visitors near the entrances and exits of the fenced-in expo area.

The two-way traffic flux during the rush hour between the Pudong section and Puxi section of the fenced-in area is estimated to be 50,000–60,000 passengers per hour. Visitors can cross the river via buses or ferries. In addition, a special ferry route for VIPs will be provided.

The Bowen Road Tunnel will be rebuilt to serve as a special cross-river tunnel with a two-way, four-lane carriageway for vehicles, which can provide one-way capacity of 3,500–4,000 PCU (Passenger Car Units) per hour. Cross-river buses, internal special vehicles, emergency vehicles, and VIP vehicles will also be arranged. As the main mode of cross-river transport, buses can pass through the tunnel within ten minutes. In addition, ferries will be provided as an auxiliary means for visitors to cross the river according to actual transport needs.

Shanghai's two airports—the Hongqiao International Airport and the Pudong International Airport—will be connected to the World Expo site via an expressway and an urban trunk network, so as to facilitate fast and convenient access.

According to the original development plan for the Pudong International Airport, its passenger flow was to reach 60 million in 2015. However, due to the rapid economic growth in Shanghai and in the surrounding Yangtze River Delta in recent years, as well as the gradual emergence of the “World Expo effect,” the reestimated passenger flow to Pudong International Airport will exceed 60 million in 2010. The Shanghai Municipal Government will expand the airport in advance. At the same time, it will speed up the reconstruction of Hongqiao International Airport so as to manage a reasonable amount of the air-traffic flow.

Shanghai has three passenger railway stations, and their passenger throughput will likely reach 70–80 million by 2010. These stations will be connected with the city rail transport network so that visitors entering Shanghai by train can reach the World Expo site conveniently.

According to the plan, Shanghai will have a rail transport network by 2010, with its daily average passenger flow increasing from 1.1 million to 8.55 million, or up from 12% to 45% in terms of its proportion in the total passenger flow of public transport. The rail transport network will connect the two airports located in the east and the west and the two rail transport interchanges in the south and the north, forming a multi-dimensional integrated transport system.

In connection with the World Expo and urban development, Shanghai will speed up the construction of its road infrastructure to establish an urban roadway network consisting of expressways, major and minor trunk roads, and corresponding branch lines. To achieve road network integration with the Yangtze River Delta, auxiliary roadway networks will be built between Pudong International Airport and Hongqiao International Airport, as well as between the provinces of Shanghai and Zhejiang. It is estimated that by 2010, expressways will reach 700 kilometers. Construction projects, such as the cross-river tunnels, will also be sped up. Emphasis will be placed on the construction of the middle-loop line project, cross-river tunnels, freeways, urban trunk roads, interchanges, and parking lots.

Based on the expressway and highway network in and around Shanghai, interchanges will be built on the outer and middle loop lines to enable visitors coming to Shanghai by private cars to transfer to special-route buses leading to the expo site.

12. Accommodation for Working Personnel

To provide comfortable accommodation for exhibitors, Shanghai will build a World Expo Village in Bailianjin, Pudong. The village will occupy about 23 hectares, and the total construction area will be around 300,000 square meters. The property will consist of three types of buildings: star-rated hotels, hotel-styled apartments, and ordinary apartments. Auxiliary daily living functions, commercial convention facilities, recreation and entertainment facilities, as well as parking lots will also be provided. Based on preliminary considerations, the property of the World Expo Village will be divided by the following ratio: 10%, 80%, and 10% respectively for star-rated hotels, apartments, and other auxiliary facilities. In terms of apartments, hotel-styled and ordinary ones will account for 32% and 68% respectively.

In light of the changing accommodation demands of the working personnel during the expo, the estimated maximum accommodation capacity of the World Expo Village in Pudong is about 10,000 people at any one time.

According to actual needs, appropriate accommodation facilities will also be built on the eastern side of the fenced-in area in Puxi to accommodate the World Expo working personnel.

Within the range of one square kilometer around the World Expo Village will be an area consisting of the Nanpu Bridge, the Dongfang Road, and the neighboring area of Pudong South Road. The current facilities for shopping, food, and accommodation are mainly concentrated near Pusan Road and Linyi Road. This is the old city area where commercial facilities abound. Apart from supermarkets, there are also stores selling medicine, computers, furniture, and so on.

13. Construction of the World Expo Halls

A detailed introduction is presented in the registration report about the construction progress of the Shanghai World Expo halls and public facilities. The general work schedule for the expo planning, design, and construction will be centered on the World Expo Park to achieve “three guarantees”: to guarantee that the World Expo halls and affiliated facilities will be able to satisfy functional needs during the expo; to guarantee that the World Expo construction projects will be arranged in a reasonable, organized, orderly, and effective manner; and to guarantee that the exhibition halls and affiliated facilities will be completed and put into use on schedule.

According to the overall planning for the World Expo construction, the period from 2005 to 2009 will be divided into three stages. The first half of 2005 is the planning stage, including overall planning and specialized planning for infrastructure construction; the second half of 2005 to 2007 will be the design stage, during which some of the crucial projects like cross-river tunnels, rail transport facilities, the Center for Public Activities, and the Performance Center will begin in the second half of 2005; the construction of infrastructure, affiliated facilities, and various halls will begin in the second half of 2006, and basically be completed by the second half of 2009.

The World Expo Park construction covers three parts: infrastructure, halls, and affiliated facilities. Infrastructure includes rail and road transport facilities, municipal infrastructure, and landscape. The park construction will be completed by 2009 as per schedule.

Regarding the construction of exhibition halls, aside from those national halls which will be independently designed and constructed by participating countries, the design will start in the latter half of 2005 and be basically completed by the end of 2007. The construction will begin at the end of 2006 and be completed in the first half of 2009.

The design of auxiliary facilities, including projects such as the Center for Public Activities, the Performance Center, and other service facilities, will begin in the second half of 2005 and be completed by the end of 2006. The construction of such major projects as the Center for Public Activities and the Performance Center will begin in the second half of 2006, while that of all other auxiliary facilities will start in 2007. All will be completed by the second half of 2009. Exhibition preparation will begin in the first half of 2010 before the official opening of the World Expo Park.

Today Shanghai is striving to become an international metropolis functioning as an economic, financial, trade, and shipping center. The 2010 Shanghai World Expo will be a grand occasion to showcase the new concepts, new technologies, and latest fashions of the world. It is a mega-cultural exhibition which Shanghai welcomes with open arms. The city is making concerted efforts to prepare for its advent.

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