Hubbard, Arnette Rhinehart 19(?)(?)–
Arnette Rhinehart Hubbard 19(?)(?)–
Lawyer, judge, election commissioner
Arnette Hubbard has been a pioneer for black women in the legal field. She became a lawyer at a time when very few women, and even fewer black women, were pursuing law degrees. Hubbard spent 28 years working as a lawyer before becoming a Circuit Court Judge. She is also an active member of numerous professional organizations. Most notably, Hubbard was the first female president of the National Bar Association, the largest organization of black lawyers and judges. In addition to these responsibilities, Hubbard has been a passionate and outspoken proponent of civil rights, particularly voting rights.
Arnette Rhinehart Hubbard was born on January 11 in Stephens, Arkansas. As a child she enjoyed reading and playing outside on her grandparents’ farm. In high school Hubbard was interested in law, but she decided to pursue math and chemistry in college. She graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and then she decided to go to law school. Hubbard graduated from John Marshall Law School in 1969 and passed the bar exam on her first try. Hubbard then practiced law from 1969 until she became a judge in 1997. Her first job was as a staff attorney for the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. Then in 1972 she went into private practice.
Hubbard established her career and her family at the same time. In fact, she gave birth to her son, Gregory Hubbard, the same week that she graduated from law school. “Getting through those times was easier because I had so many mothers,” Hubbard told Kia Buckner-Lawton of Sister 2 Sister magazine in May of 2000. “My mother-in-law, my mother, and other women who had children all helped out. Mothering got me over.” In addition to being a mother and a lawyer, Hubbard also actively participated in numerous professional associations and boards of directors. Hubbard credits her support network for helping her through this hectic period. “You get help in achieving your specific objective, as well as information that helps you stay on balance” from women’s networks, Hubbard told Lynn Norment of Ebony magazine in June of 1996. Norment, who was researching black women’s friendship networks, explained that “from ancient African societies to the Sisterhoods that sustained slave communities to the women’s networks of the 90s, Black women have always depended on one another for emotional support and stability.”
Hubbard began practicing law at a time when women were only beginning to assert themselves in that field. According to the American Bar Association, women accounted for only three percent of all lawyers in the nation in 1971. However, the rebirth of the women’s rights movement in the 1970s opened many doors for women in the legal field. By 1998 women comprised 24 percent of the nation’s lawyers. Hubbard took advantage of the new opportunities opening up for her. For example, she became the first woman president of the Cook County Bar Association.
In 1981 Hubbard broke another barrier when she became the first woman president of the National Bar Association, the country’s largest group of African American lawyers and judges. Twelve African-American
Born Arnette Rhinehart on January 11 in Stephens, AK; married name Hubbard; one son, Gregory. Education: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, B.S.; John Marshall Law School, J.D., 1969.
Career: Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, 1969-72; Lawyer, private practice, 1972-97; Chicago Cable Commission, 1985-89; Chicago Board of Election Commissioners, 1989-97; Circuit Court Judge 1997–.
Memberships: National Bar Association, 1975–; NAACP; Cook County Bar Association; President, Association of Election Commission Officials of Illinois; Election Authority Advisory Committee, State Board of Elections of the State of Illinois; Executive board, Illinois Association of county Officials; Executive committee, International Association of Clerks, Recorders, Election Officials and Treasurers; Board of directors, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority; Southern Illinois University Alumni Association; The Chicago Network; Women’s Bar Association of Illinois.
Awards: Clarence Darrow Award; Obelisk Award for Education and Community Service, 2000; Scroll of Distinguished Women Lawyers, National Bar Association, 2001.
Addresses: Office —50 W. Washington Street, Chicago, IL 60602.
legal professionals formed the National Bar Association in 1925, a time when there were fewer than 1,000 African-American lawyers in the country. According to the organization’s web site, the National Bar Association strives “… to promote professional and social intercourse among the members of the American and the international bars; to promote legislation that will improve the economic condition of all American citizens, regardless of race, sex or creed in their efforts to secure a free and untrammeled use of the franchise guaranteed by the constitution of the United States; and to protect the civil and political rights of the citizens and residents of the United States.”
Despite her success at breaking barriers, Hubbard acknowledges that she still experienced sexual harassment and discrimination while pursuing her career. “There has not been a time in my life since puberty when I have not been sexually harassed,” Hubbard told Lynn Norment of Ebony magazine in January of 1992. “Regardless of whether you are a Ph.D., an M.D., an attorney or a secretary, women in all fields have been, and are being, sexually harassed.”
Throughout her career Hubbard has continually been an advocate of civil rights and has worked as a supporter of the voting process both here in the United States and abroad. Hubbard served on the three-member Chicago Board of Election Commissioners beginning in 1989. In 1992 she became the first black commissioner elected president of the Association of Election Commissioners of Illinois. In 1994 the National Bar Association was the only bar group that was sanctioned by the International Elections Committee to participate in an American delegation observing the first post-apartheid democratic election conducted in South Africa. Hubbard was one of the National Bar Association representatives who traveled to South Africa. She was overwhelmed by the experience of witnessing people standing in line for hours simply to exercise their right to vote. Hubbard has used her stories of this historic occasion in South Africa to encourage Americans to register to vote and to appreciate their right to exercise this freedom. Hubbard also served as a member of the United States Presidential Observer Delegation to the historic parliamentary and local elections in Haiti. Additionally she served on the Election Authority Advisory Committee of the State Board of Elections of the State of Illinois, as well as the executive committee of the International Association of Clerks, Recorders, Election Officials, and Treasurers.
In 1997 Hubbard began a six-year term as a Circuit Court judge. She began her term in the First Municipal District, but in 2001 Cook County Chief Judge Timothy C. Evans assigned her to the Law Jury Section of the Law Division. Hubbard shared her philosophy about being a judge to Kia Buckner-Lawton of Sister 2 Sister magazine, “I try to understand that I may or may not affect the views of others. But what I do, I do with respect and kindness,” Hubbard explained. “I disagree without being disagreeable. I remember my purpose.” Hubbard also recounted that her most memorable moment as a judge came when she swore in the first African-American County Board president of Cook County, John H. Stroger, Jr., a man she greatly admired.
Hubbard’s accomplishments in the legal field and her advocacy for voting rights have not gone unnoticed by her peers. Hubbard has received the Clarence Darrow Award in recognition for her contributions to social justice. In 2000 she received the Obelisk Award for education and community service. Additionally, in 2001 she became the first woman inducted into the Scroll of Distinguished Women Lawyers by the National Bar Association in commemoration of the twentieth anniversary of her presidency of that organization.
Facts About Women and the Law, American Bar Association, 1998.
Who’s Who Among African Americans, 14th edition, Gale Group, 2001.
Chicago Sun Times, August 26, 2001, p. 14.
Ebony, January 1992, p. 118; June 1996, p. 88.
Jet, December 21, 1992, p. 20; September 3, 2001, p. 14.
Sister 2 Sister, May 2000, p. 36.
Cook County Press Release, www.cookcountycourt.org/publications/press-releases/2001/sept2101.html
Recipients of the Darrow Award, www.darrowfoundation.org/recipients.html
Southern Illinois University News, news.siu.edu/news/October00/103100r0163.html
—Janet P. Stamatel
"Hubbard, Arnette Rhinehart 19(?)(?)–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 23, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/hubbard-arnette-rhinehart-19
"Hubbard, Arnette Rhinehart 19(?)(?)–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Retrieved January 23, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/hubbard-arnette-rhinehart-19
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.